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政府信息公开中的冲突性问题
发布时间:2020-01-23

  摘要:我国的政府信息公开在不断深化的进程中出现各种问题,如公众知情权与第三方权益之间的冲突、政府信息公开申请权的滥用、对公开例外情形的争议等。这些问题出现的根源在于对政府信息公开中的多重价值目标并未达成共识。政府信息公开中的价值冲突表现为个体权益、第三方权益与公共利益之间的冲突、共享与效率之间的冲突、统一性与差异性之间的冲突以及传统性与现代性之间的冲突。重新审视和权衡政府信息公开的多元化价值体系,理解这些价值冲突的原因,确定不同问题中价值的优先顺位,是解决政府信息公开中各种问题的关键所在。

  关键词:赢发彩票代理政府信息公开价值; 冲突; 共享; 效率;

  作者简介: 齐秀梅(1978-),女,长春理工大学法学院副教授。研究方向:政府信息公开理论与实务。;

  基金: 吉林省哲学社会科学规划项目“吉林省政府信息公开现状分析与完善路径”(2016B155); 吉林高教科研项目“高等学校信息公开现状分析与完善建议”(JGJX2019D66);

  一、问题的提出

  WOGUODEZHENGFUXINXIGONGKAIRUGUOCONGHEBEISHENGSHIJIAZHUANGSHIGAOCHENGQUTUIXING“LIANGGONGKAIYIJIANDU”ZHIDU(1988)SUANQI,ZHIJINYIYOU30DUONIANDESHIJIAN。ZAIZHENGFUXINXIGONGKAITUIDONGHEFAZHANDESHIJIANZHONG,JINGLILE2001NIANJIARUSHIMAOZUZHIZHIJIZHENGFULVXINGTIGAOTOUMINGDUDECHENGNUO、2003NIAN“FEIDIAN”SHIJIANTUIDONGZHENGFUZAITUFAGONGGONGZHILIWEIJIXIADEXINXIGONGKAIHEYUQINGKONGZHINENGLIDETISHENG、2008NIAN《ZHONGHUARENMINGONGHEGUOZHENGFUXINXIGONGKAITIAOLI》DESHISHICHENGWEIZHENGFUXINXIGONGKAIFAZHIHUADEBIAOZHI、2019NIANTIAOLIDEQUANMIANXIUDINGDENGZHONGDUOJUYOULICHENGBEIYIYIDESHIJIAN。ZHENGFUXINXIGONGKAIZOUGUOLECONGBEIDONGDAOZIJUE、CONGJUBUDAOQUANMIAN、CONGJIANZHIDAOLIYIDEDAOLU。RANERZAIZHEIGEGUOCHENGZHONGCHUXIANDEZHONGZHONGWENTI,RUZHENGFUXINXIGONGKAISHENQINGQUANDELANYONG,ZHENGFUXINXIGONGKAIXINGZHENGSUSONGZHONGDEJUZHENGZERENFENPEI、GONGKAILIWAIQINGXINGDEFANWEI,YUBAOMIFA、YUDANGANFAZHIJIANDEXIANJIEWENTIDENG,JINGBENCITIAOLIDEXIUDINGYOUXIEWENTIRENGRANMEIYOUDEDAOCHEDIDEJIEJUE。ZHEIXIEWENTICHUXIANDEGENYUANZAIYUDUIZHENGFUXINXIGONGKAIZHONGDEDUOZHONGJIAZHIMUBIAOBINGWEIDACHENGGONGSHI,ZHEIXIEJIAZHIMUBIAOZHIJIANCHUXIANCHONGTUBINGBIAOXIANWEIJUTIWENTIDESHIHOU,BINGMEIYOUZHENGDANGXINGJICHUDELILUNZHENGCHENGHEQINGXIDEDIAOSHIGUIZEDUIQIJIAYIJIEJUE。

  YIGEZHONGYAOZHIDUDEJIAZHICONGLAIDOUBUSHIDANYIDE,ERSHIYOUDUOZHONGJIAZHIMUBIAOGOUCHENGDEFUZATIXI。DUIYUZHENGFUXINXIGONGKAIJIAZHIDERENSHI,MUQIANBINGWUTONGYIGONGSHI。CONGZHENGFUXINXIGONGKAIDEZUOYONGJIAODUKAN,ZHENGFUXINXIGONGKAIDEJIAZHIBAOHANBAOZHANGZHIQINGQUAN、FANGZHIFUBAI、JIANSHEFAZHIZHENGFU、LUOSHIYIFAXINGZHENGDENGFANGMIAN。YOUXUEZHECONGXINXIDEZHONGLEIHEDIFANGZHENGFUDECENGJIJIAODU,ANZHAOZHENGZHI、JINGJI、WENHUA、SHEHUIJIZHENGFUZISHENJIANSHEWUGEFANGMIANZAIZHONGYANGZHENGFU、DIFANGZHENGFU、JICENGZHENGFUSANGEBUTONGCENGJISHANG,TILIANCHU15ZHONGJIAZHIQUXIANG[1];YIYOUXUEZHEBAZHENGFUXINXIGONGKAIJIAZHIFENWEIXIANFAJIAZHI、ZHENGZHIJIAZHI、ZHIDUJIAZHI、JINGJIJIAZHIDENG。

  ZHENGFUXINXIGONGKAIZUOWEIJIANSHEFAZHIZHENGFUDEZHONGYAOZHIDUZHIYI,QIJIAZHIMUBIAOSHIDONGTAIERDUOYUANDE,GEJIAZHIZHIJIANZAITEDINGQINGJINGZHONGHUICHUXIANCHONGTU,BINGBIAOXIANWEIJUTIDEWENTI,RUHEQUEDINGJIAZHIZHIJIANDEYOUXIANWEIXU,SHIJIEJUEZHEIXIEWENTIDEQIANTIXINGTIAOJIAN。SHOUXIAN,ZHENGFUXINXIGONGKAIZHONGCUNZAIGETIQUANYI、DISANFANGQUANYIYUGONGGONGLIYIZHIJIANDECHONGTU,JUTIBIAOXIANWEIXINXISHEJIDISANFANGSHANGYEMIMIHUOZHEYINSIQUANDESHIHOUSHIFOUYINGYUGONGKAI;QICISHIGONGXIANGYUXIAOLVZHIJIANDECHONGTU,BIAOXIANWEIXINXIGONGKAISHENQINGQUANDELANYONG;ZAICISHIZHENGFUXINXIGONGKAIZHONGTONGYIXINGYUCHAYIXINGZHIJIANDECHONGTU,BIAOXIANWEIGEJIZHENGFUHEBUMENZAIGONGKAIZHONGYIGUIFANHUA、BIAOZHUNHUA、QINGDANHUAWEIBIAOZHENGDETONGYIXING,YUYICHUANGXINXING、DUOYUANXINGWEIBIAOZHENGDECHAYIXINGZHIJIANDEMAODUN;ZUIHOUSHIZHENGFUXINXIGONGKAICHUANTONGXINGYUXIANDAIXINGZHIJIANDECHONGTU,ZAIZHENGFUXINXIGONGKAIFANWEIDEHUADINGWENTISHANGYOUQIMINGXIAN。JIYU2019NIANZHENGFUXINXIGONGKAITIAOLIDEQUANMIANXIUDING,ZHENGFUXINXIGONGKAIZHIDUGEJIAZHIMUBIAOZHIJIANDECHONGTUJIANGBEIGENGJIAQINGXIDIRENZHI,BINGJUCIJIEJUESHIWUZHONGDEXINJIUWENTI。

  二、政府信息公开中个体权益、第三方权益与公共利益之间的冲突

  (一)个体权益、第三方权益与公共利益之间产生冲突的原因

赢发彩票代理   XINTIAOLIZAIDIWUTIAOZHONGZENGJIALE“JIANCHIYIGONGKAIWEICHANGTAI、BUGONGKAIWEILIWAI”“HEFA”YUANZEDEGUIDING。ZHENGFUXINXIGONGKAIBAOZHENGLEZUOWEIGONGMINJIBENQUANLIDEZHIQINGQUANDESHIXIAN。ZHIQINGQUANDESHIXIANYOUZHUYUCHONGFENFAZHANGETIRENGEHEJIANLIJIYUGONGMINSHENFENDEZUNRONGHEZIHAOGAN,CONGGENBENSHANGJIANG,ZHENGFUXINXIGONGKAIBUJINJINSHIJIANLIZAIZHEIZHONGGETIQUANLIDESHIJIAOZHISHANGDE,TAQIANGDIAODEGENGSHIYIZHONGHONGGUANTIZHIDEYUNZUO,QIANGDIAOZHENGFUFAZHI、TOUMING、KAIFANG、GONGXIANG、FUWUDETEZHENG。DANGXINGZHENGQUANLIYUNXINGFANGSHISHIXIANCONGMIMIDAOGONGKAI、CONGGUANZHIDAOHEZUODEZHUANBIAN,ZHENGFUXINXIGONGKAICAICHENGWEIKENENG,FANZHIYOUJINYIBUTUIJINXINGZHENGGONGKAILINIANDEGENGXINHEXINGZHENGZHILISHOUDUANDEDUOYUANHUA。GONGMINYINZHANYOUGENGDUODEZHENGFUXINXIERHUODEDUIGONGGONGSHIWUGENGDADEHUAYUQUAN,ZAIGONGGONGLIYIDACHENGDEGUOCHENGZHONGBUJINJINSHIBEIDONGDEJIESHOUZHE,YECHENGWEIGUANZHUZHE、CANYUZHEHEYIJIANXINGCHENGZHE。

赢发彩票代理   ZHENGFUXINXIGONGKAIZHIDUSHEZHIDECHUZHONGSHIWEILEBAOHUSHEHUIGONGZHONGZAIGONGFAYIYISHANGDEZHIQINGQUAN,DANSHISHIJIANZHONG,SHEHUIGONGZHONGHUOXIZHENGFUXINXIDEDIYIDONGLILAIYUANRENGRANSHIZISHENDEXUQIU,BIAOXIANWEICHAIQIANZHENGDI、SHEHUIBAOZHANGDENGLINGYUDEXINXIGONGKAISHENQINGSHULIANGYAOYUANYUANDUOYUQITALINGYU。JIUJINGSHICONGCEZHONGYUBAOHUGETIQUANLIDEJIAODU,HAISHICONGCEZHONGYUSHEHUIGONGGONGLIYIJIAODUTUIDONGZHENGFUXINXIGONGKAI,DUIZHEIYIWENTIDEDAANJIANGZHIJIEYINGXIANGZHENGFUXINXIGONGKAILIFAHEFALVSHIYONG。

  ZHENGFUZAIXINXIGONGKAIGUOCHENGZHONGBIXUCHULIHAOGUOJIAYUGETI、SHEHUIYUGETI、GETIYUGETIZHIJIANDELIYIJIUGEGUANXI,JIGETIQUANYI、DISANFANGQUANYIYUGONGGONGLIYIJIAZHIZHIJIANDECHONGTU。ZAISHEHUIYUGETIGUANXIFANGMIAN,YIXIEZHENGFUXINXIGUANXIZHEGUOJIALIYI,RUGUOXIANGGEREN、FARENHUOQITAZUZHIGONGKAIKENENGDUIGUOJIAANQUAN、ZHENGZHIWENDINGHUOZHEJINGJIANQUANZAOCHENGWEIXIE,KENENGZAOCHENGJINRONGDONGDANG、SHEHUIBUWENDINGDENGJUMIAN,JIYUSHEHUILIYIJIAODUDEKAOLIANG,ZHENDUIGETIDEGONGKAIYINGDANGSHOUDAOXIANZHI。ZAIGETIYUGETIGUANXIFANGMIAN,XINGZHENGJIGUANZHENDUITEDINGGETIGONGKAIDEZHENGFUXINXIKENENGSHEJIQITAGETIDESHANGYEMIMIHUOZHEGERENYINSI,GETIDEZHIQINGQUANHEDISANZHEQUANYIZHIJIANKENENGYINZHENGFUXINXIGONGKAIXINGWEIFASHENGCHONGTU[2],BIXUZONGHEKAOLVBUTONGGETIZHIJIANDELIYIPINGHENGHESHEHUIZHENGTIJIAZHIQUXIANG。

  (二)个体权益、第三方权益与公共利益之间冲突的典型表现

赢发彩票代理   DANGZHENGFUXINXIGONGKAIZHONGDEXINXISHEJIDISANFANGSHANGYEMIMI、GERENYINSIDENG,GETIZHIQINGQUAN、DISANFANGSHANGYEMIMIQUANHUOYINSIQUANYIJISHEHUIGONGGONGLIYIJIAZHIDECHONGTUTIXIANDEYOUWEIMINGXIAN。XINTIAOLIDISHIWUTIAOGUIDING:SHEJISHANGYEMIMI、GERENYINSIDENGGONGKAIHUIDUIDISANFANGHEFAQUANYIZAOCHENGSUNHAIDEZHENGFUXINXI,XINGZHENGJIGUANBUDEGONGKAI。DANSHI,DISANFANGTONGYIGONGKAIHUOZHEXINGZHENGJIGUANRENWEIBUGONGKAIHUIDUIGONGGONGLIYIZAOCHENGZHONGDAYINGXIANGDE,YINGYUYIGONGKAI。ZHEIYIGUIDINGTIGONGLEJIEJUECHONGTUDEJIBENSILU:GONGGONGLIYIJIAZHIZUIWEIYOUXIAN,QICISHIDISANFANGQUANYI,ZUIHOUSHIGETIQUANYI。GONGGONGLIYIDEJIAZHIJIANGYOUXIANYUDISANFANGQUANYIBEICHONGFENKAOLV。

赢发彩票代理   YINSI、SHANGYEMIMIDEGAINIANLAIYUANYUMINSHANGFA,QINEIHANHEBIANJIESUYOUZHENGYI。ZAIXINGZHENGFALINGYUZHONGYOUXINGZHENGJIGUANDUIGERENYINSIHESHANGYEMIMIJIAYIRENDING,CUNZAIZHEYIDINGDEKUNHUO。YOUXUEZHEZHUZHANGYONG“SHANGYEXINXI”HE“GERENXINXI”ZHEILIANGGEBISHANGYEMIMIHEGERENYINSIFANWEIGENGDADEGAINIAN,YONGYIZUOWEIQUFENGONGKAIYUFOUDEBIAOZHUN[3].

  ZAIZHUDONGGONGKAIHEYISHENQINGGONGKAIZHONG,YINGDANGZAIGONGKAIQIANDUIXINXIJINXINGSHIFOUSHEJIDISANFANGQUANYIDESHENCHAHEQUFENCHULI。GONGKAIZHENGFUXINXISHIZHENGFUDEFADINGYIWU,TONGSHIBAOHUGERENXINXIANQUANGENGSHIZHENGFUDEYINGJINZHIZE。ZAIZHURUCHAIQIANBUCHANG、SHEHUIBAOXIAN、BAOZHANGFANGFENPEIDENGLINGYUZHONG,ZHENGFUYOUBIYAOGONGBUSHOULINGQUNTIDEGERENXINXI,ZHEISHIGONGPINGGONGZHENGDEZHIDUXINGBAOZHANG1.DANSHIYINGDANGDUISHEJIDISANFANGQUANYIDEXINXIZUOJISHUXINGYINNIDECHULI,RUSHENFENZHENGHAOMA、LIANXIDIANHUADENGZUYIQUEDINGGERENSHENFENDEXINXI。ZAIGONGKAIXINGZHENGXUKE、XINGZHENGQUERENDENGXINGZHENGCHULIJUEDINGSHI,TONGYANGYINGDANGZHUYIYINNIHUOSHANCHUZUYIBIANRENHESHIBIESHENFENDEZIRANRENXINXI。ZAIXINGZHENGCHUFAGONGKAILINGYU,ZHEIYIWENTIYOUQITUCHU。《ZHEJIANGSHENGXINGZHENGCHUFAJIEGUOXINXIWANGSHANGGONGKAIZANXINGBANFA》(ZHEJIANGSHENGRENMINZHENGFULINGDI332HAO)DIWUTIAOGUIDINGBEICHUFARENSHIWEICHENGNIANRENDE;ANJIANZHUYAOSHISHISHEJIGUOJIAMIMI、SHANGYEMIMI、GERENYINSIDE;GONGKAIHOUKENENGWEIJIGUOJIAANQUAN、GONGGONGANQUAN、JINGJIANQUANHESHEHUIWENDINGDE;SHENGJIYISHANGXINGZHENGZHIFAJIGUANRENWEIBUSHIYIWANGSHANGGONGKAIDEQITAXINGZHENGCHUFAJIEGUOXINXI,BUYUWANGSHANGGONGKAIXINGZHENGCHUFAJIEGUOXINXI。DIQITIAOGUIDING:ZAIHULIANWANGSHANGGONGKAIXINGZHENGCHUFAJIEGUOXINXISHI,YINGDANGYINQUXIALIENEIRONG:(YI)ZIRANRENDEJIATINGZHUZHI、TONGXINFANGSHI、SHENFENZHENGHAOMA、YINXINGZHANGHAO、JIANKANGZHUANGKUANGDENGGERENXINXI,YIJIBEICHUFARENYIWAIDEZIRANRENXINGMING;(ER)FARENHUOZHEQITAZUZHIDEYINXINGZHANGHAO;(SAN)QITABUYIGONGKAIDENEIRONG。DISHITIAOGUIDINGXINGZHENGCHUFAJIEGUOXINXIZAIHULIANWANGSHANGGONGKAIMAN5NIANDE,YINGDANGCONGHULIANWANGSHANGCHEXIA。YISHANGTIAOKUANCONGGONGKAILIWAIQINGXING、ZIRANRENXIANGGUANXINXIDEYINNICHULIHEGONGKAISHIXIANFANGMIANZUOCHUXIANGXIGUIDING,DUIYUJIEJUEXINGZHENGCHUFAJIEGUOGONGKAIDECHENGFA、JINGSHIZUOYONGSUOTIXIANDEGONGGONGLIYI,YUBEICHUFARENDEGETIQUANYIZHIJIANDECHONGTUTIGONGLEJUYOUKECAOZUOXINGDEJIEJUEFANGAN。

政府信息公开

配图:政府信息公开工作

  三、政府信息公开中共享与效率之间的冲突

  (一)政府信息公开中共享与效率之间冲突的原因

赢发彩票代理   ZUIDACHENGDUDIZAIZHENGFUHESHEHUIGONGZHONGZHIJIANSHIXIANZHENGFUXINXIGONGXIANGSHIZHENGFUXINXIGONGKAIZHIDUDEGENBENJIAZHI。ZHENGFUXINXIGONGKAIDECHENGDUTIXIANZHEZHENGFUDETOUMINGCHENGDU、FAZHIHUACHENGDUHEJIESHOUJIANDUDEZHUDONGXINGCHENGDU。ZUOWEIYONGYOUXINXIYOUSHI、DUISHEHUIFUYOUFUWUHEGUANLIYIWUDEZHENGFUYINGGAIJIANGXINXIGONGXIANGHEZHILIJIZHIZUOWEIYIZHONGFEIGUANZHIXINGDEZHILIGONGJU,JIAQIANGXINXIDECHUANBOHEGOUTONG,CUJINXINXIZIYUANDEKAIFAYUGONGXIANG,WANCHENGXINXISHIDAIZHENGFUCHENGDANDESHIMING。XINTIAOLIDIQITIAOGUIDING:GEJIRENMINZHENGFUYINGDANGJIJITUIJINZHENGFUXINXIGONGKAIGONGZUO,ZHUBUZENGJIAZHENGFUXINXIGONGKAIDENEIRONG,JISHIGONGXIANGJIAZHIDEZHIDUTIXIAN。

  ZHENGFUXINXIGONGKAIZHONGDEXIAOLVJIAZHIZAISHIJIANCENGMIANSHOUDAOZHUDUOYINSUDEZHIYUE,LAIZIYUXINGZHENGJIGUANNEIBUDEYINSU,BAOKUOGEJIGEDIZHENGFUJIQIBUMENDEZHIDUWANBEIXING、CAIZHENGZIJINDETOURU、ZHUANMENJIGOUHERENYUANDEPEIBEIJIZHUANYEXING、GELEIXINXISHUJUPINGTAIZHIJIANDEZHENGHEDU、YINGDUIZHENGFUXINXIGONGKAIXINGZHENGFUYIHESUSONGDENENGLIDENG;LAIZIYUSHEHUIGONGZHONGWAIBUDEYINSU,BAOKUOXINXIGONGKAISHENQINGRENDUANQINEIDALIANGDESHENQINGJISUIHOUTIQIDEFUYIHESUSONG、JISHUDEJINBUDUIXINXIGONGKAIFANGSHIHEQUDAODEYINGXIANG、WANGLUOGONGKAIDEANQUANXINGDENG。

  SHIJIANZHONG,SHENQINGRENZAISHENQINGZHENGFUXINXIGONGKAISHIXUTIGONG“GENJUZISHENSHENGCHAN、SHENGHUO、KEYANDETESHUXUYAO”DEZHENGMINGCAILIAO,XINGZHENGJIGUANWANGWANGYIQUESHAOZHENGMINGCAILIAOHUOZHEZHENGMINGCAILIAOBUFUHE“SANXUYAO”WEIYOUBOHUISHENQING,ERGEJIGEDIZHENGFUZAISHIJIANZHONGDUI“SANXUYAO”DELIJIEHEBAWOYECUNZAIJIAODAZHENGYI,KEGUANSHANGYINGXIANGLEXINXIGONGKAIDEXIAOLV。XINTIAOLIDIERSHIQITIAOQUXIAOLEYUANLAIDISHISANTIAOZHONG“SANXUYAO”DEGUIDING。ZHEIYIXIUDINGXIANMINGDITIXIANCHUTUIDONGXINXIGONGXIANGDEYITU。

  (二)政府信息公开中共享与效率之间冲突的典型表现---政府信息公开申请权的滥用

  ZHENGFUXINXIGONGKAISHENQINGQUANLANYONGXINGWEI2,YIBANSHIZHIDANGEHUODUOGEYOULIHAIGUANXIDESHENQINGRENZAIJIAODUANSHIJIANZHOUQINEIXIANGYIGEHUODUOGEXINGZHENGJIGUANDALIANG、FANFUSHENQINGZHENGFUXINXIGONGKAIDEXINGWEI。XINTIAOLIDISANSHIWUTIAOGUIDING:SHENQINGRENSHENQINGGONGKAIZHENGFUXINXIDESHULIANG、PINCIMINGXIANCHAOGUOHELIFANWEI,XINGZHENGJIGUANKEYIYAOQIUSHENQINGRENSHUOMINGLIYOU。XINGZHENGJIGUANRENWEISHENQINGLIYOUBUHELIDE,GAOZHISHENQINGRENBUYUCHULI。DISISHIERTIAOGUIDING:SHENQINGRENSHENQINGGONGKAIZHENGFUXINXIDESHULIANG、PINCIMINGXIANCHAOGUOHELIFANWEIDE,XINGZHENGJIGUANKEYISHOUQUXINXICHULIFEI。SHOUCIZAILIFAZHONGDUISHENQINGQUANLANYONGXINGWEIZUOZUOCHUJIEDINGHECHULI,CAIYONGLE“SHULIANG、PINCIMINGXIANCHAOGUOHELIFANWEI”DEMIAOSHUXINGGUIDING,SHIWUZHONGRENGXUYAOXINGZHENGBUMENDUI“HELIFANWEI”JISHENQINGLIYOUZUOCHUZIYOUCAILIANG,TONGGUOSHISHIXIZE、SIFAANLIDENGZHUBUSHIZHIJUTIMINGXI。

  ZHENGFUXINXIGONGKAISHENQINGQUANLANYONGDEYUANYINZHIYISHISHENQINGRENBAXINXIGONGKAIZUOWEISHIXIANQITALIYISUQIUDESHOUDUAN。YIXIEDANGSHIRENYINTUDIZHENGSHOU、FANGWUCHAIQIAN、HUANJINGBAOHUDENGFANGMIANDEJUTILIYISUQIU,TONGGUOXINGZHENGFUYI、SUSONGNAIZHIXINFANGDENGTUJINGDEBUDAOMANZUHOU,XUANZETONGGUODALIANGTIQIXINXIGONGKAIDEFANGSHIJIXINGZHENGJIGUANSHIYA,XIWANGXINGZHENGJIGUANZAIBUKANZHONGFUHUOBUSHENGQIFANZHIHOUMANZUQIJUTIYAOQIU[4].ZAIDALIANG“WEIQUANHUA”“XINFANGHUA”QUSHIDEXINXIGONGKAISHENQINGQUANLANYONGXINGWEIZHONG,SHENQINGRENYIXINXIGONGKAIZHI“XING”MOUQIUSHIGUANZISHENLIYIDEXINGZHENGJIUFENJIEJUEZHI“SHI”,ZHEIZHONGXINGSHIYUSHIZHIDEBEILI,FANYINGCHUZHENGFUXINXIGONGKAIZHIDUGONGJIYUXUQIUZHIJIANDEMAODUN。DUICI,XINTIAOLIDISANSHIJIUTIAOGUIDING:SHENQINGRENYIZHENGFUXINXIGONGKAISHENQINGDEXINGSHIJINXINGXINFANG、TOUSU、JUBAODENGHUODONG,XINGZHENGJIGUANYINGDANGGAOZHISHENQINGRENBUZUOWEIZHENGFUXINXIGONGKAISHENQINGCHULIBINGKEYIGAOZHITONGGUOXIANGYINGQUDAOTICHU。

赢发彩票代理   XUANZESHIFOUZAILIFAZHONGDUIXINXIGONGKAISHENQINGQUANLANYONGZUOCHUJIEDINGYIJIXUANZEYIHEZHONGFANGSHIYINGDUI,CONGGENBENSHANGSHUOTIXIANLEZAIBAOZHANGSHEHUIGONGZHONGZHIQINGQUAN、WEIHUXINGZHENGXIAOLVYUTUIJINZHENGFUXINXIGONGXIANGDEJIAZHIZHIJIANDEXUANZE。RUHEJIYIFABAOZHANGGONGMINDEZHIQINGQUAN,YOUYOUXIAOFANGFANHEGUIZHISHAOSHURENDESHENQINGQUANLANYONGXINGWEI,TONGSHIWEIHUXINGZHENGJIGUANDEXIAOLV,SHIRENGRANCUNZAIDEKETI。CONGLIFAYINGRANCENGMIANKAN,ZHENGFUXINXIGONGKAIZHIDUDEJIBENGONGNENGSHITIGONGXIANYOUDEZHENGFUXINXI,BENZHISHANGBUDUIXINGZHENGFASHANGDEQUANLIYIWUZUOSHITIXINGDECHULI,YEBUYINXIANGDUIRENDESHENQINGERCHENGDANTEBIEYIWU。SHENQINGRENSUOTISHENQINGBEIHOUDEJUTIMUDEYIJISHENQINGJIAZHI,DUIPANDUANSHENQINGQUANSHIFOULANYONGJUYOUHEZHONGYIYI,XUJINYIBUSHENRUYANJIU。

  四、政府信息公开中统一性与差异性之间的冲突

  (一)政府信息公开中统一性与差异性之间冲突的原因

赢发彩票代理   ZHENGFUXINXIGONGKAIZHONGTONGYIXINGBIAOXIANWEIGONGKAIDEGUIFANHUA、BIAOZHUNHUA、QINGDANHUAHECHENGXUHUA;CHAYIXINGBIAOXIANWEIGEDIGEJIZHENGFUZAIGONGKAIZHONGBIAOXIANCHUDECHUANGXINXINGHEDUOYUANXING。

  TONGYIDEZHENGFUXINXIGONGKAIJUYOUZHONGYAOYIYI,ZAIGONGKAINEIRONG、CHENGXU、SHIXIANSHANGDETONGYI,JIANGJISHEHUIGONGZHONGQINGXIDEYUQI。2017NIAN,GUOWUYUANXUANQU100GEJICENGSHIDIANDANWEIJINXINGJICENGZHENGWUGONGKAIDEBIAOZHUNHUA、GUIFANHUASHIDIAN,QUERENLEZHENGFUXINXIGONGKAITONGYIXINGDEBIYAO。2019NIAN,MINZHENGBUZHIDING《SHEHUIJIUZHUHEYANGLAOFUWULINGYUJICENGZHENGWUGONGKAIBIAOZHUNZHIYIN》,YINGJIGUANLIBUZHIDING《ANQUANSHENGCHANHEJIUZAILINGYUJICENGZHENGWUGONGKAIBIAOZHUNMULUZHIYIN》,JIAOYUBUZHIDING《YIWUJIAOYULINGYUJICENGZHENGWUGONGKAIBIAOZHUNZHIYIN》,ZIRANZIYUANBUZHIDING《CHENGXIANGGUIHUALINGYUJICENGZHENGWUGONGKAIBIAOZHUNZHIYIN》,SHENGTAIHUANJINGBUZHIDING《SHENGTAIHUANJINGLINGYUJICENGZHENGWUGONGKAIBIAOZHUNZHIYIN》。ZHEIXIEJICENGZHENGWUGONGKAIBIAOZHUNZHIYINDEFABU,DUIYUJICENGZHENGWUGONGKAIGONGZUODEBIAOZHUNHUA、GUIFANHUAJUYOUZHONGYAOZUOYONG,YETIXIANCHUZAIZHEIXIEGUANXIGUOJIMINSHENGDEZHONGDIANLINGYUZHONGJICENGZHENGFUXINXIGONGKAIDETONGYIXINGYAOQIU。

赢发彩票代理   QINGDANSHIDEGONGKAIDUIYUTONGYIXINGDEDACHENGJUYOUZHONGYAODEGONGJUJIAZHI,DANSHISHIJIANZHONGQINGDANDEGONGKAIHAIMEIYOUSHIXIANZHENZHENGDETONGYI,YIZERENQINGDANWEILI,“GENJUDUITUIXINGZERENQINGDANDE31GESHENGJIZHENGFUBUMENDESHIJIANGUANCHA,WOGUOYOU3GESHENGJIZHENGFUCAIQUYIFUXINGZERENQINGDANMOSHI,14GESHENGJIZHENGFUCAIQUYITIXINGZERENQINGDANMOSHI,14GESHENGJIZHENGFUCAIQUDULIXINGZERENQINGDANMOSHI。DULIXINGZERENQINGDANZHONGYOUFENCHENGDANYIZHIZEXING、ZHIZEZHUIJIUXINGLIANGDALEI,DANYIZHIZEXINGYOUFENWEIERYUAN、SANYUAN、SIYUAN、WUYUAN、QIYUANJIEGOUWUZHONGLEIXING,ZHIZEZHUIJIUXINGYOUFENWEISIYUAN、LIUYUANHELIANGBIAODUOYUANJIEGOUSANZHONGLEIXING”[5].ZERENQINGDANLEIXINGSHANGDEBUTONGYI,DUIZHENGFUXINXIGONGKAIDEQUANWEIXINGHEGUIFANXINGCHANSHENGLEYIDINGDEXIAOJIYINGXIANG。

  TONGYIDEYOUDIANSHIBIANYULIANGHUAHEKAOHEPINGGU,DANYINGDANGZHUYIDESHI,BUTONGCENGJIZHENGFUHEBUTONGZHENGFUBUMENZAIZHENGFUXINXIGONGKAIDENENGLI、TOURU、ZHIDU、BAOZHANGDENGFANGMIANCUNZAIZHONGDACHAYI。TONGYIXINGHECHAYIXINGZAIZHENGFUXINXIGONGKAIZHONGTONGSHICUNZAI,BINGZAITEDINGQINGJINGZHONGCHANSHENGCHONGTU。

  (二)政府信息公开中统一性与差异性冲突的典型表现

  1.ZHENGFUXINXIGONGKAIFANWEISHANGDETONGYIXINGHECHAYIXING。

  XINTIAOLIDISHIJIUTIAOZHIDIERSHIERTIAOGUIDINGLEGEJIZHENGFUHEBUMENZHUDONGGONGKAIZHENGFUXINXIDEFANWEI。TIAOLIGUIDINGDEFANWEISHIFADINGZUIDIBIAOZHUN,SHIJIANZHONGXINGZHENGJUECE、ZHIXING、GUANLI、FUWU、JIEGUOLINGYUDEGONGKAIYIJISHUJUKAIFANG、ZHENGCEJIEDU、YUQINGHUIYINGYEBEIRENWEISHIZHENGWUGONGKAIDEFANCHOU,ZAIZHEIXIELINGYUZHONGGEDIGEJIZHENGFUGONGKAIDECHAYIXINGHENDA。YOUDEDIFANGJINJINTINGLIUZAIFADINGYIWUCENGMIAN,MEIYOUTOURUCHIXUXINGDERENLI、CAILIHEZHUYILIZHUDONGKUODAGONGKAIDEFANWEI;YOUDEDIFANGXIANXINGXIANSHI,ZAIGONGZHONGCANYU、HUDONGFANKUI、SHUJUKAIFANG、ZHENGCEJIEDU、XINWENFABUDENGLINGYUCHUANGXINXINGDIJIAQIANGGONGKAI。ZHENGFUXINXIGONGKAISHUYUSHOUYIXINGZHENGFANCHOU,“ZAISHOUYIXINGZHENGZHONG,YAOCHONGFENFAHUIDIFANGZHENGFUDENENGLI,ZHIYAOCAIZHENGLISUONENGJI,JIUYINGZUIDAXIANDUDIMANZUGONGZHONGSUQIU,SUOYI,SHANGWEIFAYIBANGUIDINGDESHIZUIDIBIXUMANZUDEBIAOZHUN,BUFANGAIXIAWEIFATICHUGENGGAOGENGDUODESHOUYIMUBIAO”[6].

  2.ZHENGFUXINXIGONGKAIFANGSHISHANGDETONGYIXINGHECHAYIXING。

  XINTIAOLIDIERSHISANTIAOZHIDIERSHIWUTIAOGUIDINGLEZHENGFUXINXIGONGKAIDESHUZHONGFANGSHI,JIYOUZUOWEIXINXIGONGKAIDIYIPINGTAIDEZHENGFUWANGZHAN,YEYOU“LIANGWEIYIDUAN”DENGHULIANWANGZHENGWUMEITI,HAIYOUZHENGFUGONGBAO、XINWENFABUHUI、BAOKAN、GUANGBO、DIANSHIDENGTUJING。WOMENKEYIXIANGXIANG:XIANDAIHUACHENGSHIDESHEHUIGONGZHONGKEYIPINGJIESHOUJIDIYISHIJIANHUOQUZIXUNHEFUWU,LAOSHAOBIANQIONGDIQUJICENGQUNZHONGKENENGRENGRANZHUYAOYILAIGUANGBO、GONGGAOLANDENGCHUANTONGGONGKAIFANGSHIHUOQUXINXI。WANGLUO、SHUJUJISHUDEFEISUFAZHANYIFANGMIANWEIXINXIDECHUANBOHEGONGXIANGTIGONGLEYOULIDEJISHUZHICHENG,LINGYIFANGMIANYEZAIBUTONGSHEHUIQUNTIZHIJIANZAOCHENGLENANYIKUAYUEDEJISHUBILEIHEXINXIHONGGOU,XINGCHENGJUDADECHAYIXING。ZAIZHEIZHONGTONGYIXINGHECHAYIXINGDECHONGTUZHONG,YINGGAICHONGFENCHENGRENBUTONGDIFANGHEGEJIZHENGFUZAIKEGUANTIAOJIANSHANGDECHAYIXING,YIXINXIGONGKAIDEJIEGUOZUOWEIPINGPANBIAOZHUN,BIMIANZHUIQIUXINGSHISHANGDEJUEDUITONGYI。

  五、政府信息公开中现代性与传统性之间的冲突

  (一)政府信息公开中现代性与传统性之间冲突的原因

赢发彩票代理   ZHENGFUXINXIGONGKAIZHONGDEXIANDAIXINGDAIBIAOFAZHANDEYIMIAN,CHUANTONGXINGDAIBIAOWENDINGDEYIMIAN,DOUSHIZHONGYAODEJIAZHIXIANGDU。JIYUCHUANTONGXINGDEZHENGFUXINXIGONGKAIYIZHENGFUXINXIGONGKAITIAOLIDEGUIDINGWEIDIXIANHEZUIDIYAOQIU,JISHEHUIGONGZHONGHEXINGZHENGJIGUANKEKAO、WENDINGDEYUQI,JIXINXIGONGKAIXIANGGUANXINGZHENGFUYIHEXINGZHENGSUSONGTIGONGMINGQUEDEFALVYIJU。DANZHENGFUXINXIGONGKAICONGLAIDOUBUZHIBUYUTIAOLIDEYAOQIU,JIYUXIANDAIXINGDEZHENGFUXINXIGONGKAIZHUIQIUDASHUJUJISHUDEYINGYONG、GONGKAIFANWEIDEKUODA、GONGKAIQUDAODETUOKUAN、DANXIANGGONGKAIXIANGSHUANGXIANGHUDONGZHUANBIAN、SHUJUKAIFANGHEZHILIYIJIDUIYUQINGDEJISHITUODANGHUIYING。GEDIGEJIZHENGFUYICHUANGXINDEYISHIHEGANYUSHICUODEYONGQIBUDUANCHANGSHIXINXIGONGKAIXINDEZHIDUHECUOSHI,BIAOXIANCHUXIANDAIXINGDEYIMIAN。

  (二)政府信息公开中现代性与传统性之间冲突的典型表现---对公开边界划定的争议

  ZHENGFUXINXIGONGKAIDEBIANJIECONGLAIDOUBUSHIYITIAOQINGXIDEJIEXIAN,ERSHIYIPIANMOHUDEQUYU。ZHENGFUXINXIGONGKAIBIANJIEZHONGDEXIANDAIXINGTIXIANWEIYONGDUOYANGHUADEXIANDAIXINXIJISHUCHUANBOSHOUDUANCUJINGONGKAI,BUDUANKUODAGONGKAIFANWEI,CONGXINXIGONGKAIXIANGSHUJUKAIFANGZHUANXING;CHUANTONGXINGTIXIANWEIDUISHEMI、SHEWEN、GUOCHENGXINGXINXI、NEIBUXINXI、GUIDANGXINXIDENGCAIYONGBAOSHOUDETAIDUBUYUGONGKAI。LIANGZHONGQUXIANGTONGSHICUNZAI,CHENGXIANCHUXIANDAIXINGYUCHUANTONGXINGZHIJIANDECHONGTU。

  YIJUECEGONGKAIWEILI,ZAI“JUECE、ZHIXING、GUANLI、FUWU、JIEGUO”WUGONGKAIZHONG,JUECEGONGKAIDELUOSHIYIZHICUNZAIWENTI。TONGCHANGJUECEGONGKAIBAOHANZHONGDAJUECEQIANXIANGSHEHUIGONGZHONGZHENGQIUYIJIAN、DUIYIJIANDEFANKUI、HUIYIGONGKAIDENGFANGMIAN,XINGZHENGJUECEGUOCHENGZHONGWANGWANGFANYINGCHUXINGZHENGJUECEJIGUANDECHIYI、FANFU、SHICUO、BOYI,JINGUANZHEIXIESHIJUECEGUOCHENGZHONGDEZHENGCHANGYANGTAI,XINGZHENGJIGUANYEBUYUANJIANGZHEIYIGUOCHENGWANQUANGONGKAIJISHEHUIGONGZHONGZHIXI,DANXINJUECEGUOCHENGZHONGXIANXIANDEZHENGYIMAODUNKENENGYINGXIANGXINGZHENGJUECEDEQUANWEIXING,YOUSUNXINGZHENGJIGUANZAISHEHUIGONGZHONGXINMUZHONGDEGONGXINXINGXIANG。

赢发彩票代理   XINTIAOLIDISHISITIAOZHIDISHILIUTIAOMINGQUEGUIDINGSHUYUGUOJIAMIMI、KENENGWEIJIGUOJIAANQUAN、GONGGONGANQUAN、JINGJIANQUAN、SHEHUIWENDINGDEXINXI,KENENGSUNHAIDISANFANGSHANGYEMIMIHUOZHEGERENYINSIDEXINXI、GUOCHENGXINGXINXI、NEIBUSHIWUXINXIDENGXINXIBUYUGONGKAIHUOZHEKEYIBUGONGKAI。DANXINGZHENGJIGUANRENGRANXUYAOZAIXINXISHUXING、GONGKAIHOUGUO、LIYIHENGLIANGDENGFANGMIANZUOCHUJUEDUAN。

  六、结语

  ZHENGFUXINXIGONGKAIZHONGDEJIAZHICHONGTUHEBIAOXIANYUZHENGFUZHINENGDEZHUANBIANHEZHENGFUJIAOSEDEZHUANXINGMIQIEXIANGGUAN。XIANDAISHEHUIJIYUJINGJI、WENHUAHEKEJIDEKUAISUFAZHAN,DUIZHENGFUXINGSHIXINGZHENGQUANLIDEFANGSHITICHULEXIUZHENGSUQIU,CUJINZHENGFUZHINENGCONGGUANLIDAOZHILIDEZHUANBIAN,JIANGUXIAOLVYUGONGPINGJIAZHIFENPEI,TUIDONGZHENGFUXIANGSHICHANG、SHEHUIFENQUAN,BINGJIANLIXINREN、HUDONGDELIANGXINGHEZUOGUANXI,ZHENGFUGUANLIFANGSHIXIANGDUOYANGHUA、GUIFANHUA、ROUXINGHUAFANGXIANGFAZHAN。ZHENGFUZHILIMOSHIDEZHUANXING,SHILIJIEHEXIEDIAOZHENGFUXINXIGONGKAIZHONGJIAZHICHONGTUWENTIDEBEIJING。ZHENGFUXINXIGONGKAIBUTONGYUCHUANTONGZHENGFUZHILIMOSHIZHONGDEGUANLIXINGZHENG、JIANDUXINGZHENGHEZHIXUXINGZHENG,GENGDUODITIXIANCHUSHOUYIXINGZHENG、HEZUOXINGZHENGHEFUWUXINGZHENGDESECAI。ZHENGFUYUSHEHUIGONGZHONGZHIJIANDEGUANXICONGSHULIYUDUILIDAOGOUTONGYUHEZUO,JIUSHIZHENGFUXINXIGONGKAIZHIDUZHONGDEDUOYUANHUAJIAZHIDEYIZHANGXIANHEXIEDIAODELUJING。

  参考文献

  [1]段尧清,宋霞。政府信息公开的多层性价值取向模型研究[J].情报科学,2008(2):179-182.
  [2]后向东。服务型行政标准与司法审查标准---构建我国政府信息公开范围双重标准的思考[J].中国行政管理,2010(9):29-32.
  [3]刘平。政府信息公开原则探析[J].中国法律评论,2016(4):31-36.
  [4]后向东。信息公开申请权滥用:成因、研判与规制---基于国际经验与中国实际的视角[J].人民司法,2015(15):10-13.
  [5]刘启川。通过责任清单实现政务公开法治化[J].中国行政管理,2018(7):71-78.
  [6]余凌云。政府信息公开的若干问题---基于315起案件的分析[J].中外法学,2014(4):907-924.

  注释

赢发彩票代理   1 ZHENGRUFAYUANZAIYANGZHENGQUANSUFEICHENGSHIFANGCHANGUANLIJUERSHENXINGZHENGPANJUESHU(SHANDONGSHENGTAIANSHIZHONGJIRENMINFAYUANXINGZHENGPANJUESHU(2013)NIANTAIXINGZHONGZIDI42HAO)ZHONGZHICHUDE:“ZAIBAOZHANGFANGZHIDUZHONG,DANGSHEJIGONGGONGLIYIDEZHIQINGQUANHEJIANDUQUANYUSHENQINGBAOZHANGXINGZHUFANGRENYIDINGFANWEINEIDEXINXIYINSIXIANGCHONGTUSHI,YINGJIANGBAOZHANGFANGDEGONGGONGSHUXINGFANGZAISHOUWEI,SHIHUODEZHEIYIGONGGONGZIYUANDEGONGMINRANGDUBUFENGERENXINXI,JIFUHEBILIYUANZE,YOULIYUSHEHUIDEJIANDUHEBAOZHANGFANGZHIDUDEJIANKANGFAZHAN。”

  2 MUQIANZAILILUNYANJIUHESIFASHIJIANZHONGDUIZHEIYIXINGWEIDEJIEDINGYOU“SHENQINGQUANLANYONG”“FEIZHENGCHANGSHENQING”“DALIANG、FANFUSHENQING”“EYISHENQING”“WUWEISHENQING”“JIUCHANSHENQING”DENGBUTONGYONGFA,BENWENCAIYONG“SHENQINGQUANLANYONG”DEGAINIAN。

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