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公民个人信息的法律特征与权利属性
发布时间:2020-01-22

  摘    要: 在信息迅速发展的今天,公民个人信息安全不断受到威胁,这是由于我国《个人信息保护法》的缺位和公民个人信息理论不完善所致,致使公民个人信息得不到法律有力的保障,公民个人信息的相关权益受到不同程度的威胁。据此,分别从学理角度对公民个人信息作出界定。

  关键词: 个人信息; 人身权; 财产权; 刑法修正案九;

赢发彩票代理   DANGJINHULIANWANGYEYUZIMEITIDEKUAISUFAZHAN,LINGGERENXINXIDEZUOYONGYUFATUXIAN,JIEZHONGERLAIDEYIGERENXINXIWEIQINFANDUIXIANGDEFANZUIZAIJINNIANCHENGXIANJIZENGDEQUSHI。ZONGGUANWOGUOFALVTIXIDUIYUGERENXINXIDEBAOHUJINLINGXINGCUNZAIYUXINGFA、XINGZHENGFA、MINFAHEXIANGGUANWANGLUOXINXIDENGBUMENFAZHONG,ZHEIJIUZAOCHENGLESIFASHIJIANZHONGBAOHUNAN,WOGUOXINGFADEGERENXINXIBAOHUQIBUXIANGBIQITAGUOJIAJIAOWAN,ZHENGSHIYOUYUGERENXINXIBAOHUJIZHIDEBUJIANQUAN,SIFAJIESHIGUIDINGCUNZAIBUZU,SHIDELILUNJIEDUIDANGJINGERENXINXIFAYIYUZUIDEXINGWEIBIAOXIANCUNZAIZHONGDAZHENGYI,ZHEIJIUJIYIXILIEDESIFAHUODONGDAILAILEYIDINGKUNNAN。

  1、 公民个人信息的概念

赢发彩票代理   ZONGHEGUONEIWAIXINGFAGUIDING,GERENXINXICONGNEIRONGSHANGDEDINGYIKEYIFENWEIYIXIASANZHONGXUESHUOLEIXING:

  (1)GUANLIANXING。GAIXUESHUORENWEIGERENXINXISHIZHISUOYOUYUGERENSHENGCHANSHENGHUOXIANGGUANLIANDE,BAOKUOGUANYUMIAOSHUGERENDESHISHIQINGKUANG、SHEHUIPINGJIADENG。DANJIUGERENDESHISHISUOBAOLUODEXINXIZHONGLEISHIFENGUANGFAN,LIRUGONGMINDEXINGMING、NIANLING、ZHUTIDESHEHUIPINGJIA,GERENPINGJIADENGNEIRONG,MUQIANELUOSIDEGERENXINXIBAOHUFAJIUSHIYIZHAOGAIXUESHUOZHIDING。ANZHAOGAILILUN,TARENDUIWOMENRENYIPINGJIADOUHUIZUOWEIGERENXINXIDEBAOHUFANCHOU,ZHEIJIUDAOZHIGERENXINXIDEDINGYITAIGUOLONGTONG,XINGFADEBAOHUDEWAIYANTAIGUOKUANFAN,DUISIFASHIJIANZHONGDEZHIDAOYIYIBUDA。

赢发彩票代理   (2)YINSIXING。GAIXUESHUORENWEIZHIYOUGERENYINSIYOUGUANDEXINXICAIZUOWEIGERENXINXI。YINSISHIYIGEMOHUDEGAINIAN,GAIZHUZHANGJINJINSHIDUIJUYOUYINSISHUXINGDEGERENXINXIJINXINGBAOHU,SHIDEBAOHUFANWEIYOUGUOYUXIAZHAI,ZAIXINGSHISHANGGERENXINXIYINGDANGBAOHANGERENYINSI,RUOYICIBIAOZHUNLAIDINGYIGERENXINXINEIMEFEIYINSIDEGERENXINXIZEBUZAIFALVDEBAOHUFANWEINEIYIDINGCHENGDUSHANGSUOXIAOLEBEIBAOHUDEXINXISHULIANG,ZHEIJIUZAOCHENGLEFALVBUNENGXINGZHIYOUXIAODEBAOHUFAYIWEIBEILELIFADEZHIJIEMUDE。LINGWAIYOUYUGEDIDEWENHUABUTONG,GERENYINSIDEGAINIANHENNANTONGYI,JIUWOGUOLAISHUOGEMINZUDEFENGTURENQINGBUTONGZAIJIASHANGMEIGEZHUTIDUIYUYINSIDELIJIEYEBUJINXIANGTONG,ZHEIJIUZAOCHENGLEZAISIFASHIJIANGUOCHENGZHONGFAGUANBUNENGXINGZHIYOUXIAODEDUIGERENXINXIJINXINGLIJIEYUPINGPAN,BULIYUWEIHUSIFADEZHENGCHANGZHIXU。

  (3)识别型。该学说将个人信息定义为具有能够通过文字、图片、数字等形式识别特定主体身份的信息。该学说是当前学术界的通说认为能够单独或与其他信息结合识别出特定人的信息就作为个人信息。相较前两学说而言,“识别型”在个人信息认定上覆盖面更加广泛,但在司法实践中,这样的定义也显得太过模糊,在信息与科技高速发展的今天,上述的个人信息范畴显然不能囊括所有,一个制度或名词的概念是法律对其规定的最直观的体现,识别说强调个人信息的可直接识别与间接识别,那么不可识别的信息则不作为法律保护的范围内,这显然是缺失了法律保护的全面性。笔者认为上述的三学说都存在漏洞,对于公民的个人信息不能单独的就某一学说进行定义,首先,个人信息不能单单靠是否可识别来界定,对于不可识别的信息应当分析其是否侵害了信息主体的合法利益,对已经造成损害的即使不可识别也应需要犯罪主体承担责任。其次,具有隐私性的信息作为个人信息的范畴毋庸置疑,若信息主体自行将隐私信息公之于众,则应视为自动放弃了隐私信息的隐私性保护,即使对其造成了相关法益的侵害也不能对其进行侵害了公民个人信息的处理。
 

公民个人信息的法律特征与权利属性
 

  2、 个人信息的法律特征

赢发彩票代理   ZHUTIDEZHUANSHUXING,GERENXINXIDEZHUTISHIBEIFALVFUYUMINSHIZHUTIZIGEDEZIRANREN。XINXIZHUTISHITONGGUOGERENXINXIERBEISHIBIECHULAIDETEDINGREN。ZHEIJIUYIWEIZHEXINXIZHUTIDUIZIJIDEXINXIXIANGYOUZHUANSHUQUAN,TONGSUDESHUOTEDINGDEGERENXINXIYOUQIEZHINENGZHENGMINGGAIXINXIZHUTIDESHENFEN。XUESHUJIEDUITARENXINXIJINXINGGUANLIDEXINXIGUANLIZHESHIFOUSHUYUXINXIZHUTISHIFOUYETONGYANGSHOUDAOXINGFADEBAOHUJINXINGLETAOLUN,BIZHERENWEIZHUTIDEZHUANSHUXINGBIANSHIYONGLAIJIEJUECILEIWENTI,SHOUXIAN,XINXIGUANLIZHESHICHUYUGONGZUOYUANYINDUIXINXIJINXINGBAOYOUBINGQIEZAIJINGGUOXINXIZHUTIDETONGYIHOU,XINXIGUANLIZHECAIKEYIGUANLI、CHULI、LIYONGTARENDEXINXI,DANSHIJIGUANLIZHEBUDUIZHEIXIEBAOYOUDEXINXICUNZAISUOYOUQUAN,YEBUHUICUNZAIYINGERENXINXICHANSHENGDERENGELIYIFASHENGZHUANYI,WOGUO《XINGFA》DI253TIAOQINFANGONGMINGERENXINXIZUIDIERKUANCHONGFENYUNYONGLEGERENXINXIDEZHUANSHUXING,QIANGDIAOGUANLIZHEZAIXINXIZHUTIBUZHIQINGDEQINGKUANG,YIYINGLIHUOQITAYUANYINJIANGGONGMINGERENXINXITIGONGJITARENDESHIWEIFAXINGWEI,YINGDANGSHOUDAOXINGFAZHICAI。YINCIBIZHERENWEIXINXIDEGUANLIZHEBUZAIGERENXINXIBEIBAOHUDEWENTIZHONGZUOWEIXINXIZHUTICHUXIAN,CISHIDEGUANLIZHEDUIXINXIDEQUANLIZHUANGTAIYINGSHIGUANLIERFEIYONGYOU,ZHUANSHUXINGYEJIUWUCONGTANQI。

赢发彩票代理   RENGEXINGHECAICHANXING,CHIGAISHUODEXUEZHEGENJU《MINFA》GUIDINGRENWEI:GERENZHUTIYONGYOUWEICHIZISHENRENGELIYISUOBIBEIDESHENGMINGJIANKANG、RENGEZUNYAN、RENSHENZIYOU、GERENYINSI、GERENXINXIDENGRENGEQUANLI。RENGELIYIZUOWEIRENGEQUANDEKETI,ZHEILIKEYIBAGERENXINXIANQUANZUOWEIZIRANRENRENGEQUANDEYANSHEN,GERENXINXIANQUANSHIRENGEQUANDECHANWUSHIYIZHONGDULIDERENGEQUANLI,YINCIBAOHUGERENXINXIJIUSHIBAOHUXINXIZHUTIDERENGELIYI。GERENXINXIZAIDANGJINSHEHUIDEXUQIUZHUJIANYANBIANCHENGYIZHONGSHEHUIZIYUAN,DUIGERENXINXIDEZHANYOU、CHUFEN、SHOUYIKEYICHANSHENGYIDINGDEJINGJILIYI,ZHENGSHIYINWEIGERENXINXICUNZAIRUCIDADELIYIYOUHUO,YIXIEBUFAFENZIWEILEHUODELIYICHUSHOUTARENGERENXINXI,YINCIGERENXINXIZAIJUYOURENGEQUANDETONGSHIXUJUYOUYIDINGDECAICHANXING。

赢发彩票代理   KESHIBIEXINGSHIGERENXINXIDEZHONGYAOTEZHENG,BAOKUOZHIJIESHIBIEYUJIANJIESHIBIE,GUMINGSIYI,ZHIJIESHIBIESHIKEYIZHIJIEMIAOSHUZHUTISHENFENDEXINXIBAOKUOZHIWEN,SHENFENZHENGDENGNEIRONG,JUYOUBUKEFUZHIXING;JIANJIESHIBIEZESHIXUYAOJIEZHUQITAXINXIJINXINGBIDUIGUINACONGERZHENGSHIXINXIZHUTISHENFENDEYINSU,BAOKUOXINGMING、XUEXINGDENGNEIRONG,JIANJIESHIBIEDEXINXISHIBUKEYIDANDUYONGLAIZHENGMINGXINXIZHUTIDESHENFEN,YINCIZAIGERENXINXIDESHIBIEZHONGBUDEDANDANYIKAOYISHANGNEIRONGBIANBIEXINXIZHUTI,HAIYAODUIQITAYINSUJINXINGZUOZHENG。SHIJIANZHONGGERENSHIBIECUNZAIYIDINGDEZHUGUANXING,NAXIEXINXIKEYIZHIJIESHIBIE,NAXIEXINXIXUYAOQITAYINSUZUOZHENGZAIFALVSHANGMEIYOUYINGXINGGUIDING,YINCIZAIZHEIYIWENTIDEPANDUANSHANGYINGDANGZUNXUNSHEHUIGONGZHONGDEJIAODULAIKAN,BUDEJIARUZIJIDEZHUGUANPINGPAN。

  3、 公民个人信息的权利属性

  DANGJINXUEJIEZAIGERENXINXIDEQUANLISHUXINGSHANGCUNZAIZHENGYI:YIWANGLIMINGJIAOSHOUWEIDAIBIAODEXUEZHERENWEIGERENXINXISHUYURENGEQUAN,YIFANGMIANGERENXINXIZAIYIDINGCHENGDUJUYOUKESHIBIEXINGSHIYIFUYURENGETEZHENGCUNZAIDE,GERENXINXIDOUKEYIZHIJIEHUOJIANJIEDEBIAOMINGGERENSHENFEN;LINGYIFANGMIANGAIXUESHUORENWEISHOUJIHUOCAINAGONGMINGERENXINXIDEXIANGGUANZUZHIBUYIDINGWANQUANCHUYUCAICHANXINGDEMUDE,GENGDUODEZESHICHUYUGONGYIJIBAOHUGONGGONGQUANYIDEDENGJISHISHOUJI,BUNENGJIANGGERENXINXIZUOWEICAICHANQUANYIPIANGAIQUAN。GERENXINXICHONGFENDETIXIANRENGEXING,ZAIDUIGONGMINDEGERENXINXIJINXINGBAOHU,SHIJISHIQIANGDIAOGONGMINDUIYUGERENXINXIDEZHIPEIHEKONGZHI,QUANLIRENDUIYUTARENDEXINXICAIJIGONGZUOXUYAORENKE,ZHEIJIUTIXIANLEGONGMINDUIYUGERENXINXIDEKONGZHI。GERENXINXIZUOWEIRENGEQUANTIXIANZAIYIXIAFANGMIAN:SHOUXIAN,GERENXINXIZUOWEIRENGELIYIDEDUIXIANG,CHONGFENTIXIANLERENGEQUANDETEZHENG,FALVBAOHUGONGMINDEGERENXINXISHIJISHANGSHIBAOHUGONGMINDUIYUXINXIDEKONGZHIQUAN,JIDUIYUYINSIXINXI,ZAIJINGGUOBENRENSHOUQUANDEQINGKUANGXIA,KEYIDUIGAIXINXIJINXINGGONGKAIYULIYONG,DANWEIJINGBENRENSHOUQUAN,SIZIJIANGTARENXINXIYONGYUHUOLIHUOQITAYONGTUDEZERENDINGWEIQINHAILETARENDERENGELIYI,DUIYUGAIXINXIYINGDANGSHOUDAOFALVDEBAOHU;QICI,ZUOWEIGERENXINXIDEXIAOXIANG、XINGMING、XINGBIE、TONGXUNDIZHI、DIANHUAHAOMADENGDOUZUOWEIRENGEQUANBAOHUDEFANWEINEI,YINCIGERENXINXIYINGDANGZUOWEIRENGEQUAN。LINGYIFANGMIANJIANGGERENXINXIRENDINGWEICAICHANQUANZAISUNHAIPEICHANGSHIZEHUIYINGERENSHENFENBUTONGYOUSUOCHAYI,BULIYUWEIHURENGEZUNYANHERENGEPINGDENG。

  BUFENXUEZHERENWEIGERENXINXISHUYUCAICHANQUAN,TAMENRENWEIGERENXINXIBUNENGDANCHUNDEGUIDINGWEIRENSHENQUAN,SHOUXIAN,RENZUOWEISHEHUIZHONGDEDUTEGETI,QISHENGMING、SHENTI、JIANKANGDENGQUANLISHIBUNENGSHOUDAOTARENDEGANSHEYUYINGXIANG,DANYIGESHEHUITUANTIZHONGDERENCHULEZHEIXIERENSHENQUANLIHAIYINGJUBEIXINGMING、XIAOXIANG、YINSIDENGYINSUFUZHUCUNZAI。ZHEIXIEYINSUDECUNZAIZEGOUCHENGLEGONGMINDEGERENXINXI,GAIXUESHUORENWEIZHEIXIEGERENXINXISHIRENGEQUANDEYANSHENGWU,SHIBAOHANYUBEIBAOHANDEGUANXI,JIANGGERENXINXIWANQUANNARUDAORENSHENQUANLIZHONGSHIBUHELIDE。QICI,ZAIXIANYOUDEFALVZHONG,MINGQUETICHU“XIAOXIANGBAOHUQUAN”,ZHEIJIUSHIDEFALVCHENGRENBINGRENKEXIAOXIANGQUANSHIKEYIZIYOUMAIMAIDE,GERENDEXIAOXIANGSHIJUYOUCAICHANXINGDE。SHIZHIJINRIYIXINXIZHUTIDEGERENTONGYIYIZHIWEIQIANTIJIANGGERENXINXIJINXINGMAIMAIDESHIJIANLVJIANBUXIAN,YINCIGERENXINXITONGYANGJUYOUCAICHANXING,RUOSHIJIANGGERENXINXIGUIZHIRENSHENQUANERFOURENQIJUBEIDECAICHANJIAZHISHIBUZUYIFUZHONGDE。GAIXUESHUOBINGBUSHIPIANMIANDEFOUDINGGERENXINXIBUJUYOURENGESHUXING,ERSHIZAIKAOLVCAICHANSHUXINGDETONGSHIKAOLVRENGESHUXINGDEKENENG,WEIFALVTIGONGGENGDUODESILU。

  BIZHERENWEIBUYINGJIANGGERENXINXIZUOWEIRENGEQUANHUOZHECAICHANQUAN,ERSHIYINGDANGZUOWEIYILEIXINXINGDEQUANLIFENLEIJIXINXIQUAN。JIEHEYISHANGLIANGZHONGXUESHUO,WULUNSHIJIANGGERENXINXIZUOWEIRENGEQUANHUOSHICAICHANQUANDOUBUNENGHANGAIQIDUTEXING,GERENXINXISHIXINXIZHUTIDERENGESHENFENYUSHEHUISHENFENDEZONGCHENG,QIANGDIAOQIRENGEXINGZEBULIYUWEIHUXINXIZHUTIDECAICHANQUANYI;ZHUIQIUCAICHANXINGZEHULVELEQITABUJUYOUCAICHANSHUXINGDEXINXIZHONGLEI,LIUJIAOSHOUDEGUANDIANSHIYAOJIANGQUANLISHUXINGDEHUAFENLINGHUOHUA,SHIJIANZHONG,YIZHAOANJIANDESHISHILAIQUEDINGGERENXINXIDEQUANLISHUXING,BIZHERENWEIZHEISHIBUKEQUDEZUOWEI,WOGUODEFALVSHIYICHENGWENFAWEIPANANJICHUDETIXI,GERENXINXIDERENDINGYINGSHIFALVMINGQUEGUIDINGDEERBUSHIJUTIWENTIJUTIFENXI,ZHEIJIUYOUSUNFALVDEYANSUXING,TONGSHIHUIJISHENPANFAGUANZAOCHENGYIDINGDECAILIANGKUNNAN,DUIYUGEANDELIJIEBUTONG,MEIGEZHUTIDUIYURENGEYUCAICHANDEPANDUANBUYI,MEIYOUTONGYIDEBIAOZHUNHENNANDUIGERENXINXIDEQUANLISHUXINGJINXINGHELIDEDINGWEI,YOUCIFALVDEGONGZHENGXINGHENNANDEYIGUANCHE。JIANGGONGMINDEGERENXINXIZUOWEIXINXIQUANDANDUFENLEIZESHIKAOLVDAOLEXINXIDEZHONGLEIDUOYANGBINGQIEFUGAIMIANGUANG,RUOSHIJIANGGERENXINXIFANGZHIYUQITAXINXIZHIXIA,NANMIANHUIDUIGERENXINXIDENEIRONGYOUYILOU。TONGSHI,GERENXINXIZUOWEIGONGMINSHENFENDEZAITI,RUJINYIJINGBUNENGRENDINGWEISHIRENGEQUANLIDECHANWU,DUIGAILEIXINXIDEDANDUFENLEIYOULIYUJINHOUDUIXINXIDERENDING,CONGERZUIDACHENGDUDEJIEYUESIFAZIYUANBAOHUFAYI。

  4、 结语

  WOGUOXINGFADUIYUGONGMINGERENXINXIDEBAOHUZHENGZAIZHUBUWANSHAN,DANJIYUWOGUOGERENXINXIBAOHUDEQIDIANDI、QIBUWANDENGKEGUANYUANYINDAOZHIGERENXINXIBUNENGWANQUANBEIBAOHU,《XINGJIU》DUIYUXIANGGUANFATIAODEXIUGAIWUYIDUISIFASHIJIANZHONGDIANDINGLEJICHUTONGSHIZAIGENGDACHENGDUDEDAJILESHIJIANZHONGCHUXIANDEQINHAIGERENXINXIDEFANZUI,QIDAOLEZHENSHEZUOYONG。DANJIANYUWOGUO《GERENXINXIBAOHUFA》HAICHUYUQUEWEIZHUANGTAI,WOGUOFALVDEGERENXINXIBAOHUHAIYOUHENZHANGYIDUANLUYAOZOU,ZHENGSHIZHEIYIFALVDEQUESHICAIDAOZHIXIANJIEDUANDUIYU“GONGMINGERENXINXI”DEJIEDINGGESHUOFENYUN,ZHENGSHIQUESHAOZHEIYANGMINGQUEDEGUIDING,ZAISIFASHIJIANZHONGSIFAJIGUANBUZHIYINGRUHESHIYONGFALV,WEIPANANDAILAILEBUXIAODENANTI。BENWENZAITANJIUXINGFAZHONGDUIYUGERENXINXIRENDINGDETONGSHIHAIJIEJIANLEMINFAZHONGDUIYUQUANLISHUXINGDERENDINGNEIRONG,CONGXUELISHANGDUIYUGONGMINGERENXINXIZHEIYIGAINIANJINXINGJIEDINGWULUNDUISIFASHIJIANHAISHIXUESHUYANJIUDOUJIANGJUYOUZHONGYAOZUOYONG。

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