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延平区紫云英播种面积下降原因与建议
发布时间:2020-01-15

  摘    要: 紫云英在改良土壤、培肥地力上的作用经济实惠,分析了紫云英在南平市延平区播种面积下降的原因,提出扩大紫云英种植的几种途径,为延平区耕地地力及农产品品质的提升提供建议。

  关键词: 紫云英; 种植; 土壤; 培肥;

  Abstract: Milk vetch improves soil structure and soil fertility economically.Factors that reducing the milk vetch planting area of Yanping District were analyzed,measures that expanding production were proposed to promote land capacity and the quality of agricultural product.

  Keyword: milk vetch; planting; soil; improve fertility;

赢发彩票代理   NANPINGSHIYANPINGQUDILIWEIZHIJIEYUBEIWEI26°15′~26°51′,DONGJING117°50′~118°40′,SHUZHONGYAREDAIJIFENGQIHOU,ZHONGNIANWENNUANSHIRUN,ZUILENGYUEPINGJUNQIWEN9.1℃,ZUIREYUEPINGJUNQIWEN28.5℃,JIN10 aPINGJUNQIWENZAI19.7℃~20.9℃,NIANPINGJUN≥10℃DEJIWENWEI7 053.9℃;NIANPINGJUNJIANGSHUILIANG1 463.5~2 516.7 mm;NIANZHENGFAZONGLIANGWEI1 313.2~1 587.5 mm,XIABANNIANWANGWANGZHENGFALIANGDAYUJIANGSHUILIANG,CHUXIANGONGSHAOYUQIUDEXIANXIANG,NIANPINGJUNXIANGDUISHIDU73%~79%;DUONIANPINGJUNSHIZHAOSHISHU1 709.9 h,WUSHUANGQI286 d。YANPINGQUWENNUANSHIRUNDEQIHOUTIAOJIANSHIHEZIYUNYINGDEZAIPEI。

赢发彩票代理   ZIYUNYINGYUANCHANZHONGGUO,YOU1 600DUONIANDEZAIPEILISHI,ZIYUNYINGSHUDOUKE,QIGENLIUYOUGUDANZUOYONG,SHIYIZUOTIANRANDEDANFEIZHIZAOCHANG,XIANCAOFUHANDAN、LIN、JIAYANGFEN,MEI1000 kgXIANCAODEYANGFENXIANGDANGYU7~8 kgNIAOSU、5 kg LINFEI、6~7 kgJIAFEI;ZIYUNYINGXIANCAOHAITIAN,YOUJIZHIYEXIANGDANGFENGFU,SHIGAILIANGTURANG、PEIFEIDILIDE“DELIZHUSHOU”[1,2],ZIYUNYINGSHIZHONGGUONANFANGSHUIDAOZHONGZHIDIQUZHUYAOLVFEIZUOWUZHIYI,DANCONG2000NIANYILAIZAINANPINGSHIYANPINGQUBOZHONGMIANJIDAFUXIAJIANG,ZHI2017NIANBOZHONGMIANJIYOUJIAODASHANGSHENG。

  1、 紫云英播种面积下降原因

  1.1、 水稻种植面积下降

  紫云英最主要的种植方式是与水稻套种,一般于水稻收割前10~15 d播撒紫云英种子,有利紫云英出苗。延平区统计年鉴显示,水稻播种面积自1980年的32 465.2 hm2下降至2017年的8 792.3 hm2,可套播的水稻面积大幅下降(表1)。
 

延平区紫云英播种面积下降原因与建议
 

  1.2 、种植结构调整

赢发彩票代理   PAIGUANFANGBIANDETIANKUAIGAIZHONGJINGJIZUOWUBILIDA,JIAOTONGBIANLI、DISHIPINGTANDEGENGDICHAKOUANPAIJINCOU,DAO—CAI、DAO—YAN、DAO—HUAMOSHIBILIDA,WUFAJIZIYUNYINGANPAIZUGOUDESHENGZHANGSHIJIAN,ZAOCHENGZIYUNYINGBOZHONGMIANJIXIAJIANG。

  1.3、 气候条件影响

  YANPINGQUQIHOUTIAOJIAN9YUE、10YUEQIUHAN,JIAOTONGBUBIANJIPIANYUANXIANGCUNDETIANKUAIHUANGWUHUOGAIZHONGJINGJIZUOWUDEBILIBUDI,QIZHONGYIBUFENSHANDISHUITIANGAIZHICHENGGUOYUAN,RUOPEITAODEGUANGAICUOSHIBUDAOWEI,ZIYUNYINGBOZHONGHOUNANYIFAYA、SHENGZHANG,ZAOCHENGBOZHONGZIYUNYINGHOUNENGZHENGCHANGSHENGZHANGDEMIANJIJIANSHAO。

  1.4 、化肥使用影响

  HUAFEISHIYONGZAINONGYESHENGCHANZHONGCHUYUJUEDUIZHUDAODIWEI,LVFEISHENGCHANZECHUYUZISHENGZIMIEZHUANGTAI。NANPINGCHUANTONGNONGYEDESHIFEI,ZHUYAOSHISHIYONGNONGJIAFEI,ZI1945NIAN8YUE,FUJIANSHENGJIANSHETINGPEIJINANPINGSHINONGMINSHIYANCHANGTANSUANQINGAN300 kg,GUOLINSUANGAI4 000 kg,KAICHUANGYANPINGQUSHIYONGHUAFEIYILAI,BANSUI20SHIJI80NIANDAIHUAFEIGONGYEDEFAZHAN,HUAFEISHIYONGZAINONGZUOWUSHENGCHANZHONGDESHIFEIJIEGOUZHONGCHUYUJUEDUIYOUSHIDIWEI。WEIJIESHENGSHIJIANHELAOLI,YUELAIYUEDUONONGMINYISHIYONGHUAFEILAIDAITIZIYUNYINGLVFEIDENGNONGJIAFEIDESHIYONG,HUAFEIYONGLIANGBUDUANZENGZHANG,BIAO2KEJIANSHIFEILIANGCONG1980NIANZHI2017NIANZENGJIAJIN1.5BEI。GUANGDAZHONGZHIHUYOUYUGUODUZHUIQIUJINGJILIYIERHUSHISHENGTAIXIAOYIHESHEHUIXIAOYI,LVFEIZHONGZHIMIANJILIANNIANXIAJIANG,1991NIANBOZHONGMIANJI4 698.7 hm2,2002NIANXIAJIANGZHI260.97 hm2,LVFEISHENGCHANCHUYUZISHENGZIMIEZHUANGTAI(SHUJULAIYUANYANPINGQUTONGJINIANJIAN、NANPINGSHIYANPINGQUZHI[1991-2005],2014NIANCHUBAN)。ZAIFUJIANSHENGTUIGUANGSHISHIWOTUGONGCHENGQIAN,ZIYUNYINGZAIYANPINGQUJIHUBUJIANLEZONGYING。

  表1 延平区各年度水稻、蔬菜、绿肥种植面积
表1 延平区各年度水稻、蔬菜、绿肥种植面积

  表2 延平区各年度化肥使用量
表2 延平区各年度化肥使用量

  1.5、 生产者主动安排绿肥轮作的积极性不高

赢发彩票代理   LVFEIZHONGZHIZHUYAOSHIPEIFEIDILI,ZHIGUANXIAOYIBUMINGXIAN,SUIZHENONGCUNYIJUBANQIANGONGCHENG、CHENGZHENHUADETUIJINHEWAICHUWUGONGRENYUANBUDUANJIADA,NONGCUNSHENGYULAODONGLIJIQIQUEFA,LAODONGLICHENGBENZHUNIANDAFUSHANGSHENG,NONGTIANKAIGOUPAISHUIJILVFEIFANYAYOUBIBUZHONGLVFEIFANGENGFEIYONGDA,YINCISHENGCHANZHUTIZHONGZHILVFEIDEZIYUANJIESHOUCHENGDUJIAODI,DUIXIANGMUBUTIEDEYILAIJIAODA。

  2、 对策与建议

  2.1 、坚持绿色发展,推广绿肥种植

赢发彩票代理   HUAFEINENGKUAISUBUCHONGZUOWUSUOXUDEDAN、LIN、JIA、GAI、MEI、XINDENGSUXIAOYANGFEN,QIZHONGYAOXINGBUKEHUSHI,ERYOUDANYISHIYONGHUAFEISUODAOZHIDETURANGBANJIE、DILITUIHUA、NONGCHANPINPINZHIXIAJIANGDENGWENTIRIYITUCHU,NONGCHANPINSHENGCHANYEYOUYUANLAIDEQIULIANGFAZHANXIANGQIUZHIFAZHANBIANHUA。YINCI,TONGGUOYOUJIFEIPEIFEIDILIDECHUANTONGNONGYECUOSHIZHONGXINSHOUDAOLEZHONGSHI,QIZHONGZHONGZHIZIYUNYINGDENGDOUKEZUOWUSHIYOUXIAODEPEIFEITUJING。DOUKELVFEIZUOWULIYONGGENLIUJUNJINXINGSHENGWUGUDAN,SHIYIZUOTIANRANDEDANFEIJIAGONGCHANG,TONGGUOZHONGZHIZIYUNYINGDENGDOUKELVFEIHAIKEHUOHUAHEFUJITURANGZHONGYINGYANGYUANSULAITIGAOTURANGFEILI,FANYAHAITIANHOUHAINENGTISHENGTURANGYOUJIZHI,GAISHANTURANGJIEGOU,WEITURANGWEISHENGWUTIGONGLIANGHAODESHENGZHANGHUANJING,CONGERGAISHANTURANGSHENGTAIHUANJING[3]。GUOYUANZHONGZHIZIYUNYINGHAINENGFANGCHUZACAO,JIEYUECHUCAOCHENGBEN;ZIYUNYINGDESHENGZHANGWANGSHENGQIZAICHUNJI,QIAFENGYUJI,TONGGUOZHONGZHIZIYUNYINGJIUNENGFUGAILUOLUDEBIAOTU,FANGZHIYUSHUICHONGSHUA,ZHILISHUITULIUSHI;WEIHAICHONGTIANDITIGONGSHENGZHANGCHANGSUO,YOULISHENGWUFANGZHIBINGCHONGHAI。HECHUNMEI、JIANGXUEHAIDENGRENDUISHUIDAO、PUTAOTAOZHONGZIYUNYINGDEYANJIUJIEGUOHAIBIAOMING,ZIYUNYINGFANYAHAITIANBUJINYOULIYUTIGAOTURANGFEILI,ZAISHIFEIJIANLIANG10%HUAFEIQINGKUANGXIAHAINENGBAOCHIZUOWUCHANLIANG、GAISHANZUOWUPINZHI,SHIXIANWENCHAN、YOUZHI,DADAOWENCHANYOUZENGSHOUDEMUDE[4,5]。

  2.2、 培育种植主体

  FUJIANSHENGWEISHENGZHENGFUYISHISHIWOTUGONGCHENG、BIAOZHUNNONGTIANZHILIANGTISHENGDENGCAIZHENGBUTIEXIANGMUWEIZAITI,DIAODONGNONGMINZHONGZHILVFEIDEJIJIXING,2010NIANKAISHI,YANPINGQUBEIDINGWEIYOUJIZHITISHENGXIANGMUJIANSHEXIAN,QUNONGYEJUYIFANGMIANJIJITUOZHANZIYUNYINGYUTAO、MIHOUTAO、PUTAO、CHA、GANJIEDENGGUOSHUDEZHONGZHIMOSHI,LINGYIFANGMIANTONGGUOFUCHIZHUANYEHEZUOSHE、ZHONGZHIDAHU、JIATINGNONGCHANGDENGNONGYEJINGYINGZHUTIFAZHANZHONGZHILVFEI,FAHUIXINXINGJINGYINGZHUTIYOUGUIMOXIAOYI、NONGYEJIXIEHUASHUIPINGGAO、ZHONGZHILVFEIZUOYECHENGBENJIAODIDEYOUSHI,DIAODONGZHEILEIZHUTIZHONGZHILVFEIDEJIJIXING。

  2.3、 因地制宜推广绿肥种植

赢发彩票代理   YIGONGLUYANXIAN、MEILIXIANGCUNJIANSHEDENGWEIZHONGDIANSHISHIQUYU,CHONGFENLIYONGDONGXIANTIAN、GUOCHAYUANDEGUANGRESHUITUZIYUAN, TUIGUANGDONGXIANTIANLVFEIZHONGZHI、GUOCHAYUANTAOZHONGLVFEI,JIYOULIYUPEIFEIDILI,YOUMEIHUANONGTIANJINGGUAN,CUJINXIUXIANNONGYEFAZHAN,CHENGWEIXIANGCUNJINGJIZHENXINGDEXINZENGZHANGDIAN。

  TANSUOLVFEIYUDAOMI、SHUIGUO、FENGMIDENGLVSE、YOUJINONGCHANPINSHENGCHANDECHANYEZHENGHE,TUIGUANGZIYUNYING—SHUIDAO、ZIYUNYING—JINGJIZUOWUTAOZHONGDENGZHONGZHIMOSHI,XINGCHENGHELITAOZHONG、LUNZUOZHONGZHIZHIDU,SHILVFEICHENGWEIZHONGZHIYEJIEGOUDIAOZHENGDECHANYEXUANXIANG。

  YIXINKENGENGDI、GAOBIAOZHUNNONGTIANJIANSHEHOUXUSHUHUAGENGDIHEPEIFEIDILIWEIZHONGDIAN,FAHUILVFEIZHONGZHIZAIJIANSHIHUAFEI、KONGZHINONGYEMIANYUANWURAN、PEIFEIDILI、GAISHANTURANGJIEGOUDENGFANGMIANDEZUOYONG。

  参考文献

  [1] 谢志坚,周春火,贺亚琴,等.21世纪我国稻区种植紫云英的研究现状及展望[J].草业学报,2018,27(8):185-196.
  [2] 李维明,黄庆海,袁天佑,等.长期施用绿肥对红壤稻田水稻产量和土壤养分的影响[J].植物营养与肥料学报,2011,17(3):563-570.
  [3] 颜志雷,方宇,陈济琛,等.连年翻压紫云英对稻田土壤养分和微生物学特性的影响[J].植物营养与肥料学报,2014,20(5):1151-1160.
  [4] 何春梅,钟少杰,严建辉,等.紫云英翻压对葡萄产量品质与果园土壤理化性状及微生物量的影响[J].福建农业学报,2018,33(11):1151-1157.
  [5] 江学海,周维佳,李敏,等.紫云英还田对常规红米水稻产量和品质的影响[J].中国稻米,2016,22(6):34-37.

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