赢发彩票代理

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初步证据的不同内涵与规则构建
发布时间:2020-01-15

  摘    要:赢发彩票代理 初步证据在法律、司法解释及实务中应用广泛,但初步证据的内涵无法统一。《民用航空法》等法律中的应用缘起英美法系,初步证据内涵是转移证明责任的法定证据规则。《民诉解释》第284条代表的司法应用,实质与大陆法系疏明规则类似,初步证据内涵是提示当事人履行提供证据责任。《民用航空法》等法律中的初步证据应用范围非常狭窄,且与大陆法系非成文证据规则体系不融洽,该类初步证据的内涵并不具有可采性。司法解释和实务中的初步证据应用广泛,且与大陆法系疏明规则本质相同。中国应借鉴疏明规则界定初步证据内涵,并进一步明确初步证据规则的证明对象、证明责任分配及证明标准等事项。

  关键词:赢发彩票代理 初步证据; 内涵冲突; 证明责任; 履行提供证据责任; 疏明规则;

  Abstract:赢发彩票代理 Prima facie evidence is widely used in law,judicial interpretation and practice,but the Implication of it cannot be unified.The application of Prima facie evidence in the Civil Aviation Law and other laws,which transfers the burden of persuasion,stems from the common law system. The application of Prima facie evidence in article 284 of the Judicial Interpretation of Civil Procedure Law,which is to remind the parties of the burden of proof,is similar to the rule of Glaubhaftmachung in civil law system. The former usage of Prima facie evidence is very narrow,which doesn't accord to the evidence rule system of civil law system,and should be abandoned. The latter usage of Prima facie evidence is extensive,which accords to the evidence rule system of civil law system.Therefore,the usage of Prima facie evidence in our country should learn from the rule of Glaubhaftmachung in civil law system.

  Keyword: prima facie evidence; conflict of implication; the burden of proof; remind the parties of the burden of proof; the rule of glaubhaftmachung;

赢发彩票代理   CHUBUZHENGJUDEXUELIYANJIUKUIFA,JINYOULIANGGEXUEZHEJIEDINGGUOQIGAINIAN,QIYIRENWEI“CHUBUZHENGJUZHIZAIMEIYOUXIANGFANZHENGJUDETIAOJIANXIACHENGLIDEZHENGJU,TAYUNXUDANGSHIRENTONGGUOXIANGFANDEZHENGJUYUYITUIFANJIBIANBODEZHENGJU”[1]71,QIERRENWEI“YOUCHENGBIAOMIANZHENGJU,SHIZUIZHONGZHENGJUDEXIANGDUIYU,SHIZHIZAIMEIYOUXIANGFANZHENGJUDEQINGKUANGXIAKEJUYOUZUIZHONGSHUOFULIDEZHENGJU”[2]117。LIANGGEGAINIANJIEDINGDAZHIXIANGTONG,CEZHONGDUICHUBUZHENGJUZHENGMINGXIAOGUODEFANBO[2]117,DANWUFAHANGAIXIANXINGFAYINGYONGZHONGCHUBUZHENGJUDENEIHAN。CHUBUZHENGJUJICHUXIANZAI《ZHONGHUARENMINGONGHEGUOHETONGFA》(JIANCHENG《HETONGFA》)《ZHONGHUARENMINGONGHEGUOMINYONGHANGKONGFA》(JIANCHENG《MINYONGHANGKONGFA》)《ZHONGHUARENMINGONGHEGUOHAISHANGFA》(JIANCHENG《HAISHANGFA》)DENGFALVDETIAOKUANZHONG,YOUCHUXIANZAI《ZUIGAORENMINFAYUANGUANYUSHIYONG〈ZHONGHUARENMINGONGHEGUOMINSHISUSONGFA〉DEJIESHI》(JIANCHENG《MINSUJIESHI》)DENGSIFAJIESHIZHIZHONG,ZAISHIWUZHONGYEYOUGUANGFANYINGYONG1。LIYONGZHENGMINGLILUNFENXI,XUELIDUICHUBUZHENGJUDEGAINIANJIEDINGWUFAHANGAIQIFALV、SIFAJIESHIHESHIWUZHONGDEQUANBUNEIHAN,CHUBUZHENGJUDESHIYONGGUIZEYIYOUDAICHENGQING。

  一、立法和实务应用中初步证据内涵不统一

  (一)立法中初步证据的分歧

  以“初步证据”和“初步证明”检索北大法宝,检索到法律、法规几十部。从立法角度分析,现行法规对初步证据的应用存在较大分歧。
 

初步证据的不同内涵与规则构建
 

赢发彩票代理   DIYI,FALVHESIFAJIESHIZHONGCHUBUZHENGJUDETIAOWENGOUCHENGBUTONG,KEJIANGCHUBUZHENGJUDETIAOWENFENSANLEI:SHOUXIANSHIFALVZHONGMINGQUECHUBUZHENGJUZHIZHENGJUZHONGLEIWEIYIXINGDELEIXING,《MINYONGHANGKONGFA》DI111TIAO、DI118TIAO,《HAISHANGFA》DI77TIAOJIDI80TIAO,KEPIAODENGCHENGKESUOCHIDEPIAOJULEIZHENGJUSHIYUNSHUHETONGZHONGWEIYIZHENGJU。QICI,FALVZHONGCHUBUZHENGJUTIAOKUANWEIMINGQUECHUBUZHENGJUZHIWEIYIDEZHENGJUZHONGLEI。《HETONGFA》DI310TIAO、《MINYONGHANGKONGFA》DI134TIAOHE《HAISHANGFA》DI81TIAODENGCHUBUZHENGJUTIAOKUANMUDEWEIBIAOSHUTEDINGFALVSHISHIDEFADINGZHENGMINGXIAOGUO,WEIMINGQUECHUBUZHENGJUWEIYIDEZHENGJUZHONGLEI。ZUIHOU,SIFAJIESHIDECHUBUZHENGJUTIAOKUANLEIXINGFUZA,DAZHIFENLIANGLEI:YOUDEWEIMINGQUEZHENGJUZHONGLEI,RU《MINSUJIESHI》DI284TIAO、《ZUIGAORENMINFAYUANGUANYUSHENLIXIAOFEIMINSHIGONGYISUSONGANJIANSHIYONGFALVRUOGANWENTIDEJIESHI》(JIANCHENG《XIAOFEIGONGYISUSONGJIESHI》)DI4TIAOJI《JIANCHAJIGUANTIQIGONGYISUSONGGAIGESHIDIANFANGAN》DI4TIAO、《ZUIGAORENMINFAYUANGUANYUSHENLIHUANJINGMINSHIGONGYISUSONGANJIANSHIYONGFALVRUOGANWENTIDEJIESHI》(JIANCHENG《HUANJINGGONGYISUSONGJIESHI》)DI8TIAO、《RENMINJIANCHAYUANTIQIGONGYISUSONGSHIDIANGONGZUOSHISHIBANFA》DI17TIAOJI《ZUIGAORENMINFAYUANGUANYUSHENLISHIPINYAOPINJIUFENANJIANSHIYONGFALVRUOGANWENTIDEGUIDING》DI5TIAODI2KUANDENGCHUBUZHENGJUDETIAOWEN;YOUDEWEIMINGQUEZHENGJUZHONGLEIDEWEIYIXING,DANMINGQUECHUBUZHENGJUDEDUOGEZHENGJUZHONGLEI,RU《ZUIGAORENMINFAYUANGUANYUSHENLISHANGBIAOSHOUQUANQUEQUANXINGZHENGANJIANRUOGANWENTIDEGUIDING》(JIANCHENG《SHANGBIAOSHOUQUANXINGZHENGQUEQUANJIESHI》”)DI19TIAODENGGUIDING。

  DIER,CHUBUZHENGJUDELIFATIAOWENYIZHENGMINGDUIXIANGSHIFOUXIANYUTEDINGSUSONGLEIXINGKEFENWEILIANGLEI:QIYI,ZHENGMINGDUIXIANGFEIXIANDINGZAITEDINGLEIXINGSUSONG,FANWEIBAOKUOSUOYOUFALVHEBUFENSIFAJIESHIZHONGCHUBUZHENGJUTIAOWEN。QIER,TIAOWENZHONGDEZHENGMINGDUIXIANGXIANDINGZAITEDINGSUSONGLEIXING,BAOKUODABUFENSIFAJIESHIZHONGCHUBUZHENGJUDELIFATIAOWEN。GONGYISUSONGZHISUZHILIYIDEZHENGMING,DUOYICHUBUZHENGJUBIAOSHU,《MINSUJIESHI》DI284TIAO、《XIAOFEIGONGYISUSONGJIESHI》DI4TIAO、《HUANJINGGONGYISUSONG》DI8TIAODENGTIAOWEN,QIZHONGCHUBUZHENGJUDEZHENGMINGDUIXIANGXIANDINGYUGONGYISUSONG。YINGUOGUANXIZHENGMINGZERENDAOZHIGUIDINGZHONG,SHISHIYINGUOGUANXIDEZHENGMINGDUOYICHUBUZHENGJUBIAOSHU,RU《GUANYUQUANMIANJIAQIANGHUANJINGZIYUANSHENPANGONGZUO,WEITUIJINSHENGTAIWENMINGJIANSHETIGONGYOULISIFABAOZHANGDEYIJIAN》DI8TIAO。GAILEICHUBUZHENGJUTIAOWENZHONGDEZHENGMINGDUIXIANGXIANYUYINGUOGUANXIDAOZHIDEANJIANZHONG,YIHUANJINGQINQUANZHONGYINGUOGUANXIJUZHENGZERENDAOZHIGUIFANZUIWEIDIANXING[2]118-119。YINSHISHIYINGUOGUANXIDEFUZAXING,GAIZHONGCHUBUZHENGJUDEZHENGJUZHONGLEIMEIYOULIFAXIANDINGBIYAO[2]120。

  (二)实务中初步证据应用的分歧

  SHIWUZHONG,CHUBUZHENGJUYINGYONGGUANGFANQIEDUOYANG,JIYOUCHUBUZHENGJUDELIFATIAOWENSHIYONG,YEYOUCHAOTUOLIFATIAOWENDESHIYONG。QIZHONG,SHIWUZHONGCHUBUZHENGJUDEYINGYONGZAIZHENGMINGXIAOLISHANGJUYOUCHAYI。

  DIYI,JUYOUWEIYIZHENGJUZHONGLEIDECHUBUZHENGJUTIAOWENSHIYONG,JUYOUZHUANYIZHENGMINGZERENXIAOGUO。ZAI“CAIBAOBEIJINGZHIGONGSISUTONGHEGONGSI、HUANYUGONGSIHAISHANGHUOWUYUNSHUHETONGDAIWEIQIUCHANGJIUFENAN”2,FAYUANRENDINGCHIYOUTIDANJIKETUIDINGHUOWUJIAOFU3。JUYANZHI,SUIFAYUANBINGWEIMINGQUETIDANDETUIDINGXIAOLI,DANFAYUANJIANG“SHIJIJIAOFUQINGKUANGYUTIDANBUXIANGFU”ZHEIYISHISHIDEZHENGMINGZERENFENPEIJISHOUHUOREN,JIJIANGJIAOFUHUOWUDEZHENGMINGZERENFENPEIJISHOUHUORENCHENGDAN。

赢发彩票代理   DIER,WEITEDINGZHENGJUZHONGLEIDECHUBUZHENGJUTIAOWENSHIYONG,BUZHUANYIZHENGMINGDUIXIANGDEZHENGMINGZEREN。YI《SHANGBIAOSHOUQUANXINGZHENGQUEQUANJIESHI》DI19TIAOWEILI,“……ZHEZUOQUANDENGJIZHENGSHUJINSHIQUEDINGZHEZUOQUANQUANLIGUISHUDECHUBUZHENGJU,……BUZUYIZHENGMING……XIANGYOUZHEZUOQUAN……”4。ZHEZUOQUANDENGJIZHENGSHUBINGBUSHIWEIYIDECHUBUZHENGJU,BINGBUZHUANYIZHENGMINGDUIXIANGDEZHENGMINGZEREN。ZAI“HUAGAICHUANGYI(BEIJING)TUXIANGJISHUYOUXIANGONGSIYUHAERBINZHENGLINRUANJIANKAIFAYOUXIANZERENGONGSIQINHAIZHEZUOQUANJIUFENTISHENAN”ZHONG,FAYUANJINMINGQUEJIGEZHENGJUZHONGLEIKEZUOCHUBUZHENGJU,TISHIDANGSHIRENLVXINGTIGONGZHENGJUZEREN5,BUZHUANYICHUBUZHENGJUZHIZHENGMINGDUIXIANGDEZHENGMINGZEREN。

  DISAN,CHAOTUOXIANYOULIFADECHUBUZHENGJUYINGYONG,DUOBUZHUANYIZHENGMINGZEREN。SHIWUZHONG,XUDUOCHUBUZHENGJUDEYINGYONGCHAOTUOXIANYOULIFA,SHUYU“FAGUANZAOFA”。DI83HAOZHIDAOANLIZHONG,FAGUANDUIFALVGUIDINGZHONG“TONGZHI”YAOJIANDEZHENGMING,TICHULEJIZHONGTEDINGZHENGJUZHONGLEIDECHUBUZHENGJU6。CIZHONGCHUBUZHENGJUDESHIYONG,BUHUICHANSHENGZHUANYI“TONGZHIYIJINGLVXING”DEZHENGMINGZEREN,JINTISHIBEIQINQUANRENLVXINGTIGONGZHENGJUZEREN。ZAI“CHENCHENGYUYUNEIMENGGUCHANGYUSHIYEYOUXIANGONGSIHETONGJIUFENAN”ZHONG,YINZHANGZHENSHIDEZHENGJUJISHIXIEYIZHENSHIDECHUBUZHENGJU,BUNENGZHUANYIXIEYIZHENSHIZHEIYIZHENGMINGDUIXIANGDEZHENGMINGZEREN7。LINGWAI,XUDUOFAGUANYINGYONG“CHUBUZHENGJU”BINGWUSHIZHIYIYI,JINSHIYIZHONGWUYIJUDE“FAGUANZAOFA”,RU“SHANDONGJUFENGWANGLUOYOUXIANGONGSISUHANGUOMGAMEGONGSI、DISANRENTIANJINFENGYUNWANGLUOJISHUYOUXIANGONGSIWANGLUOYOUXIDAILIJIXUKEHETONGJIUFENGUANXIAQUANYIYISHANGSUAN”8。

  二、初步证据的不同内涵及溯源

赢发彩票代理   LIFAHESHIWUZHONGCHUBUZHENGJUYINGYONG,ZAIZHENGJUXIAOLIFANGMIANCUNZAICHAYI,CHAYIYUANYINSHICHUBUZHENGJUYINGYONGDESUYUANBUTONG。

  (一)证据效力的差异

  ZAI《MINYONGHANGKONGFA》DENGBUMENFAZHONG,CHUBUZHENGJUSHIYUNXUDANGSHIRENTONGGUOXIANGFANZHENGJUBIANBODEZHENGJU,QIZHENGMINGXIAOGUOKEBEITUIFAN[1]70。ZAI《MINSUJIESHI》DI284TIAOJISHIJIANZHONG,CHUBUZHENGJUSHIDANGSHIRENLVXINGTIGONGZHENGJUZERENDEXUNSHIXINGGUIDING。LIANGZHONGCHUBUZHENGJUDEZHENGJUXIAOLIBUTONG。

赢发彩票代理   DIYI,XIANDINGWEIYIZHENGJUZHONGLEIDECHUBUZHENGJUTIAOWENSHUFALVSHISHITUIDINGGUIDING,YOUZHUANYIZHENGMINGZERENDEXIAOLI,BAOKUO《MINYONGHANGKONGFA》DI111TIAOHEDI118TIAO、《HAISHANGFA》DI77TIAOHEDI80TIAO。ZAIZHENGMINGKEYUNHETONGGUANXIZHONG,KEPIAOZHUANYIZHENGMINGZEREN,CHUBUZHENGJUDETIAOWENSHUYUFALVSHISHITUIDINGGUIZE[1]71。LIYOUYOUER:(1),KEPIAOWEIDAIBIAODECHUBUZHENGJUTIAOWENYUANYUHAISHANGFAZHONGTIDANTUIDINGGUIZE。TIDANSHIZHENGMINGJIAOFUDEZHIJIEZHENGJU,ZHUANYIZHENGMINGZEREN。WEIYIZHENGJUZHONGLEIDECHUBUZHENGJUTIAOWENJIEJIANTIDANTUIDINGGUIZE[1]70,QISHIZHISHIFADINGZHENGJUGUIZE,YOUZHUANYIZHENGMINGZERENDEXIAOLI。TIDANTUIDINGGUIZEYUANQIYINGMEIFAXIDECHUBUZHENGJU(prima facie evidence)YUJUEDUIZHENGJU(conclusive evidence),CHUBUZHENGJUSHIZHISHIYIZHONGFALVTUIDING,ZHUANYIZHENGMINGZEREN[1]70-71。YINGMEIZHENGJUFALIDUICHUBUZHENGJUDEZHENGJUXIAOLIYOUYIDINGZHENGYI[3]437-438,DANDUICHUBUZHENGJUDENGTONGTUIDINGGUIZEZHEIYITONGSHIBINGWUYIYI[3]437。《LIANBANGZHENGJUGUIZE》DI310TIAOGUIDING[4]223,FALVGUIZEZHONGDETUIDINGGUIZEKEZHUANYISHUOFUZEREN。YINGMEIFAXIDECHUBUZHENGJUGUIZEYOUTEDINGFAANGUIDING[3]485-486,GUQIKEZHUANYISHUOFUZEREN。YINCI,YIYINGMEICHUBUZHENGJUWEIYUANXING,WEIYIZHENGJUZHONGLEIDECHUBUZHENGJUTIAOWENSHUYUFALVSHISHITUIDING,YOUZHUANYIZHENGMINGZERENDEXIAOGUO。(2)KEPIAODEWEIYIXINGZUYIZHICHENGQIZHUANYIZHENGMINGZERENDEXIAOLI。KEPIAOWEIDAIBIAODEWEIYIZHENGJUZHONGLEISHIGESHIHUAZHENGJU,YOUHANGKONGGONGSIDENGJIGOUTIGONGQIEYOUMINGQUEHETEDINGXING。GAIZHONGMINGQUEHETEDINGDECHUBUZHENGJU,JUYOUMINGQUEDEGONGSHIXINGTEZHENG,YINGONGSHIGONGXINYUANZEFUYUQIZHUANYIZHENGMINGZERENXIAOLIKEBAOZHANGJIAOYIWENDINGXING。

  DIER,WEIXIANDINGWEIYIZHENGJUZHONGLEIDECHUBUZHENGJUTIAOWENBUZHUANYIZHENGMINGZEREN。《HETONGFA》DI310TIAO、《MINYONGHANGKONGFA》DI134TIAOJI《HAISHANGFA》DI81TIAODENGCHUBUZHENGJUTIAOWEN,WEIGUIDINGWEIYIDEZHENGJUZHONGLEI,JIMEIYOUMINGXIFEIWEIYICHUBUZHENGJUDEZHENGMINGXIAOLIBIYAO。YOUGUANDIANRENWEIZHEIJIGETIAOWENSHUFALVSHISHITUIDING,YOUZHUANYIZHENGMINGZERENDEXIAOLI[1]71。YIYOUGUANDIANRENWEIGAILEIGUIDINGSHUFANZHENGZHONGDEFALVSHISHITUIDING,BUJUZHUANYIZHENGMINGZERENDEXIAOLI[5]31。BENWENRENWEIWEIMINGQUEWEIYIZHENGJUZHONGLEIDECHUBUZHENGJUTIAOWENBUNENGZHUANYIZHENGMINGZEREN,YINWEIFEIWEIYIDECHUBUZHENGJUMEIYOUGONGSHIXING,ZHUANYIZHENGMINGZERENZAISHITIFASHANGZHANBUZHUJIAO。TONGLI,SIFAJIESHIHESHIWUZHONGCHUBUZHENGJUTIAOWENDECHUBUZHENGJUYIBUNENGZHUANYIZHENGMINGZEREN,JINSHITISHIDANGSHIRENLVXINGTIGONGZHENGJUZEREN。RU《SHANGBIAOSHOUQUANXINGZHENGQUEQUANJIESHI》DI19TIAO,YINGUIDINGLEJIGETEDINGDEZHENGJUZHONGLEIERBUJUWEIYIXING,WUFAZHUANYICHUBUZHENGJUZHIZHENGMINGDUIXIANGDEZHENGMINGZEREN。

  (二)溯源不同致证据效力差异

赢发彩票代理   ZHONGGUOLIFAZHONGDECHUBUZHENGJUTIAOWENYUANYUYINGMEIFAXICHUBUZHENGJUGUIZE,SIFAJIESHIJISHIWUZHONGCHUBUZHENGJUDEYINGYONGQUELEITONGDALUFAXIDESHUMINGGUIZEGOUZAO。

  1. 初步证据法律条文的溯源:英美法系初步证据规则

赢发彩票代理   《MINYONGHANGKONGFA》DI111TIAOHEDI118TIAOJI《HAISHANGFA》DI77TIAOHEDI80TIAODAIBIAODECHUBUZHENGJUTIAOWENSHIJIAOWEIWANSHANDEGUIDING,MINGQUEXIANDINGCHUBUZHENGJUDEZHENGJUZHONGLEI。YUANYUYINGMEIFAXIDECHUBUZHENGJUGUIZE[1]71,YOUYINGGUOXUEZHEZUIZAOTICHU[1]70。ZAIMEIGUO,CHUBUZHENGJUGUIZEYUKEFANBOTUIDINGZHUJIANDENGTONG[3]437,YOUPANLIHEGUIZEMINGQUEGUIDING[6]549-552。JIELUNXINGZHENGJUGUIZEYINBENSHENBUKEFANBODETEZHENG,ZAILILUNHESHIWUZHONGYOUZHENGYI[7]109-111,SHIYONGFANWEIJIQIXIAZHAI。CHUBUZHENGJUGUIZEZAIHAISHANGFAZHONGZHUJIANYANBIANCHENGTIDANTUIDINGGUIZE。YINYINGMEIFAXICHUBUZHENGJUGUIZEDEXIAOLIZHENGYI[3]437-438,TIDANDEZHENGMINGXIAOLIYEYOUZHENGYI。QIZHONG,TONGSHUORENWEITIDANYOUWUQUANTUIDINGXIAOLI[8]37-52,HAIYOUHETONGWENSHUZHENSHIXINGDETUIDINGXIAOLI[9]114。YI《HAISHANGFA》DI77TIAOWEILI,TIDANSHU“TIDANSUOZAIZHUANGKUANGSHOUDAOHUOWUHUOZHEHUOWUYIJINGZHUANGCHUAN”ZHEIYIZHENGMINGDUIXIANGDECHUBUZHENGJU。QIZHONG,WEIYIZHENGJUZHONGLEIDECHUBUZHENGJUSHITIDANBENTI,DUITIDANJIZAINEIRONGYOUZHIJIEZHUANYIZHENGMINGZERENDEGONGNENG[10]182-183。LIYOUYOUER:(1)TIDANSHIQIYUNHANDEJIAOYIDEZHIJIEJILU,YINGYOUTUIDINGZHENSHIDEXIAOLI。(2)CONGGESHIHUASHUZHENGJIAODUFENXI,FUYUQIZHENSHITUIDINGXIAOLIKEJIESHENGJIAOYICHENGBEN。SHIWUZHONG,YOUANLIYIJINGYANZHENGTIDANDETUIDINGXIAOLI9。YI《HAISHANGFA》DI77TIAOWEIDAIBIAODECHUBUZHENGJUTIAOWENYINYOUZHUANYIZHENGMINGZERENDEXIAOGUO,YUDALUFAXIFADINGZHENGJUGUIZEWUYI[11]128,SHIZHISHIZHENGMINGZERENFENPEIGUIZE。

  2. 初步证据实务应用缘起:大陆法系疏明规则

赢发彩票代理   SHIWUZHONG,JUEDADUOSHUDECHUBUZHENGJUDEYINGYONGBUHUIZHUANYIZHENGMINGZEREN,JINTISHIDANGSHIRENLVXINGTIGONGZHENGJUZEREN。RUZUIGAOFASUOZUODEDI83HAOZHIDAOANLIHE“CHENCHENGYUYUNEIMENGGUCHANGYUSHIYEYOUXIANGONGSIHETONGJIUFENAN”10,2015NIANDE《MINSUJIESHI》DI284TIAOGUIDINGGONGYISUSONGDEYUANGAOBIXUTIGONG“YOUSHEHUIGONGGONGLIYISUNHAI”DECHUBUZHENGJU,TIAOWENZHONGDECHUBUZHENGJUZESHIDUIYIWANGSHIWUYINGYONGDEZONGJIE。CONGYONGYUSHANGKAN,《HUANJINGGONGYISUSONGJIESHI》DI8TIAOCAIYONG“CHUBUZHENGMINGCAILIAO”BIAOSHU,SHUOMING“CHUBUZHENGJU”YU“CHUBUZHENGMINGCAILIAO”WUSHIZHICHAYI。ZUIGAOJIANBANBUDE《RENMINJIANCHAYUANTIQIGONGYISUSONGSHIDIANGONGZUOSHISHIBANFA》DI17TIAOJI《JIANCHAJIGUANTIQIGONGYISUSONGGAIGESHIDIANFANGAN》DI4TIAO,YICAIYONG“CHUBUZHENGMINGCAILIAO”BIAOSHU。CONGTIAOWENNEIRONGKAN,MEIYOUMINGQUEWEIYIDEZHENGJUZHONGLEI,CHUBUZHENGJUDEZHENGJUZHONGLEIYOUYUANGAOZIZHUJUEDING。YINWEIMINGQUECHUBUZHENGJUDEZHENGJUZHONGLEI,GAITIAOWENBUHUICHANSHENGZHENGMINGZERENZHUANYIDEXIAOGUO。ZONGYANZHI,《MINSUJIESHI》DI284TIAODAIBIAODECHUBUZHENGJUSIFAYINGYONG,YINGDINGWEIWEIZHENGMINGBIYAOXINGDEGUIZE,ERFEIZHENGMINGZERENFENPEIGUIZE。

  CONGZHENGMINGFALIFENXI,CHUBUZHENGJUDESHIWUYINGYONGYOUZHENGMINGCHENGXUDEFEIDUIKANGXINGTEZHENGHEXINZHENGDEZANDINGXINGDENGTEZHENG。SHOUXIAN,MEIYOUTEDINGZHENGJUZHONGLEIDESIFAJIESHITIAOWENDUICHUBUZHENGJUDEYINGYONG,JINTISHIDANFANGDANGSHIRENLVXINGTIGONGZHENGJUZEREN。YI《MINSUJIESHI》DI284TIAOWEILI,ZHENGMINGDUIXIANGJINXIANYUANGAOZHENGMING,DUIFANGDANGSHIRENWUFATIGONGFANBOZHENGJU,ZHENGMINGCHENGXUBUJUYOUDUIKANGXING。GAITIAOWENZHONGDEZHENGMINGDUIXIANGYISHISUSONGZHONGDEYAOJIANSHISHI,JIYUCHUBUZHENGJUXINGCHENGDEXINZHENGZHUANGTAIBUSHIZUIZHONGXINZHENG,JINSHIYONGYUPANDUANSHIFOUYUYILIANDEZANDINGXINZHENG。QICI,FENXI《SHANGBIAOSHOUQUANXINGZHENGQUEQUANJIESHI》DI19TIAODAIBIAODEDUOZHONGZHENGJUZHONGLEIDECHUBUZHENGJUTIAOWEN,YIKEFAXIANXINZHENGZANDINGXINGHEZHENGMINGCHENGXUFEIDUIKANGXINGDENGTEZHENG。SHANGBIAOGONGGAODAIBIAODEDUOZHONGCHUBUZHENGJUZUOWEICHUBUZHENGJU,DUIZHENGMINGDUIXIANGXINGCHENGDEXINZHENGKEYOUDUIFANGDANGSHIRENJUZHENGTUIFAN。YINWEIJINRUSHIZHIDUIKANGDEZHENGMINGCHENGXU,SUOYIJIU“XIANGYOUZHEZUOQUAN”DEXINZHENGSHULINSHIXINZHENG。ZAISHANGBIAOQUEQUANCHENGXUZHONG,BUYUNXUDUIFANGDANGSHIRENDUIGAILINSHIXINZHENGYUYIFANBO。ZUIHOU,ZUIGAOFADI83HAOZHIDAOANLIDAIBIAODECHUBUZHENGJUYINGYONG,YIKEFAXIANXINZHENGZANDINGXINGHEZHENGMINGCHENGXUFEIDUIKANGXINGDENGTEZHENG。ZAIWENSHUZHENSHIZHENGMINGGUOCHENGZHIZHONG,YINZHANGZHENSHIDEZHENGJUSHUCHUBUZHENGJU。YINWEIJINRUWENSHUZHENWEIDEZHENGMINGGUOCHENGZHONG,BUYUNXUDUIFANGDANGSHIRENTIGONGZHENGJUFANBO,FAGUANYIN“YINZHANGZHENSHI”JIU“WENSHUZHENSHI”XINGCHENGXINZHENGSHIZANSHIXINZHENG。

赢发彩票代理   CONGCHUBUZHENGJUDESHIWUYINGYONGDEXINZHENGZANSHIXINGHEZHENGMINGFEIDUIKANGXINGDETEZHENGKAN,SHIWUYINGYONGZHONGDECHUBUZHENGJUGUIZEYUDALUFAXISHUMINGGUIZEFEICHANGLEISI。SHUMINGYUZHENGMINGXIANGDUI,DEGUOZHULIUXUELIRENWEISHUMINGSHIYIZHONGDIYUGAODUGAIRANXINGZHIZHENGMINGBIAOZHUNDEFAGUANXINZHENGZHUANGTAI[12]814,ZHONGGUOTAIWANZHULIUXUELIYIRENTONGCIGUANDIAN[13]104。CIWAI,RIBENZHULIUXUELIRENWEISHUMINGNEIHANHAIBAOKUODANGSHIRENWEIDADAODAZHIQUEDINGZHIXINZHENGZHUANGTAIDEDANGSHIRENXINGWEI[14]373。QIZHONG,SHUMINGBUJINJIANQINGZHENGMINGDU,SUOJINXINGDEZHENGJUDIAOCHAYEXIANYUJISHIJINXING[12]814[14]373,QIESHUMINGDESHISHIYIFALVGUIDINGWEIXIAN,JINXIANYUBAOQUANDENGJIANYICHENGXUGOUZAOQIDONGTIAOJIANDESHIXIANGZHENGMING[15]452-453。DUIBIZHENGMINGCAISHUANGFANGBIANLUNDECHENGXUGOUZAOLAIKAN,SHUMINGYAOQIUJISHIJINXINGDEZHENGJUDIAOCHASHIZHISHIFAGUANJINDUIDANFANGDANGSHIRENSUOTIJIAODEZHENGJUJINXINGSHENHE,XIANGDUIFANGDANGSHIRENWUXUTIJIAOZHENGJUJINXINGFANBO。ZONGZHI,SHUMINGJUYOUZHENGMINGBIAOZHUNDEDIDUGAIRANXINGHEZHENGMINGCHENGXUGOUZAODEDANFANGXING。QIZHONG,SHUMINGDEZHENGMINGBIAOZHUNYOUJIAODUOFANDUISHENGYIN,DEGUOXUEZHELAIBOERTERENWEISHUMINGYUZHENGMINGZAIZHENGMINGBIAOZHUNSHANGWUCHABIE[16]5-6,RIBENXUEZHEJIANTAITIANYIYOUYIWEN[17]32,ZHONGGUOTAIWANDIQUYAORUIGUANGYEYOULEISIZHIYI[18]286,ZHONGGUODALUDIQUWUJIEYERUCIRENWEI[16]7-13。SHENYANZHI,SHUMINGQUFENYUZHENGMINGDETEZHENGSHIZHENGMINGCHENGXUGOUZAODEDANFANGXING,JIYUNHANZHESHUMINGXINGCHENGXINZHENGDEZANDINGXINGHEZHENGMINGDEFEIDUIKANGXING。

  CHU《HETONGFA》DI310TIAO,《MINYONGHANGKONGFA》DI134TIAO、DI111TIAO、DI118TIAO,《HAISHANGFA》DI77TIAO、DI80TIAOJIDI81TIAOWAI,QITACHUBUZHENGJUDENEIHANSHITISHIDANGSHIRENLVXINGTIGONGZHENGJUZEREN,CHUBUZHENGJUDEYINGYONGYOUZHENGMINGDEFEIDUIKANGXINGHEXINZHENGZANSHIXINGTEZHENG。CONGBIJIAOFAGUANCHA,CHUBUZHENGJUZAIZHONGGUOFAZHANYIJINGCHAOTUOYINGMEIFAXIDECHUBUZHENGJUGUIZE,YUFAYUDALUFAXISHUMINGGUIZEKAOJIN。

  三、借鉴疏明角度下初步证据规则建构

  ZHONGGUO《MINYONGHANGKONGFA》DI111TIAOHEDI118TIAO、《HAISHANGFA》DI77TIAOHEDI80TIAOYUYINGMEIFAXICHUBUZHENGJUGUIZEDENGTONG。ZAIDALUFAXIZHENGJUHUAYUTIXIXIA,BENZHISHIFADINGZHENGJUGUIZE,NENGGOUZHUANYIZHENGMINGZEREN。ZHONGGUOSIFAJIESHIHESHIWUZHONGCHUBUZHENGJUDEYINGYONG,DUOSHITISHIDANGSHIRENLVXINGTIGONGZHENGJUZEREN,YUDALUFAXISHUMINGGUIZEXIANGLEISI。LIANGZHONGBUTONGDECHUBUZHENGJUYINGYONGZAINEIHAN、DINGWEIHEZHENGJUFAGONGNENGDENGFANGMIANCUNZAIFENQI,DANZHONGGUOLIFAZHEHESHIJIANZHEJIEWEIRENSHIDAOGAIZHONGFENQI,DAOZHICHUBUZHENGJUDEYINGYONGCHENGXIANCHULUANXIANG。TONGYICHUBUZHENGJUDEGAINIANNEIHAN,JIANGOUCHUBUZHENGJUGUIZECAISHIJIEJUEWENTIDEFANGXIANG。

  (一)借鉴疏明内核匡正初步证据内涵的论证

  ZHUZHANGYISHUMINGGAINIANDENEIHANKUANGZHENGZHONGGUOCHUBUZHENGJUDEGAINIANNEIHAN,YUANYINYOUSI。

  DIYI,《MINYONGHANGKONGFA》DI111TIAOHEDI118TIAO、《HAISHANGFA》DI77TIAOHEDI80TIAODAIBIAODECHUBUZHENGJUTIAOWENYUANQIYINGMEIFAXI,YUDALUFAXIZHENGJUGUIZETIXIBUHE。JINGGUOHAISHANGFAXUEDENGXUEKEDETIDANTUIDINGGUIZEDEFAZHAN,GAILEICHUBUZHENGJUGUIZEYANHUAFAZHANCHENGGUOJIXINGTONGSHIGUIZE,DANYUDALUFAXIDETUIDINGGUIZEBINGWUSHIZHIQUFEN[10]182-183。ZHONGGUOCAIDALUFAXIZHENGJUHUAYUTIXI,RUOQIANGXINGCAIYINGMEIFAXIDECHUBUZHENGJUGUIZE,ZEHUIHUNXIAOZHONGGUOGUYOUDEFALVTUIDINGGUIZE。YONGFALVSHISHITUIDINGDAITI《MINYONGHANGKONGFA》DI111TIAOHEDI118TIAO、《HAISHANGFA》DI77TIAOHEDI80TIAODENGCHUBUZHENGJUTIAOWEN,YIKEDADAOTONGYANGXIAOGUO,WUXUJIANGZHIYIYUYINGMEIFAXIDE“prima facie evidence”GAINIANQIANGXINGGUIDINGZAIXIANXINGFAZHONG,ZAOCHENGYUZHONGGUOGUYOUZHENGJUHUAYUTIXIBUFUDEXIANXIANG。

赢发彩票代理   DIER,SHIWUHESIFAJIESHIZHONGCHUBUZHENGJUDEYINGYONG,YUZHONGGUOGUYOUZHENGJUHUAYUTIXIGENGQIHE。CONGWENYIJIEDU,CHUBUZHENGJUWUFADUCHUZHUANYIZHENGMINGZERENDEXIAOGUO。CHUBUZHENGJUGAINIANDEHEXINZAIYU“CHUBU”ERZI,ZAIZHENGMINGDONGTAIGUOCHENGZHONG,“CHUBU”ZUIYIJIEDUWEIDANFANGDANGSHIRENTIGONGZHENGJU,ERQUFENYULIANGZAODEZHENGJUDUIKANG。ZHENGJUTIGONGDEDANFANGXINGJIXINZHENGZHUANGTAIDEZANDINGXING,SHICHUBUZHENGJUYINGYONGDEBENZHITEZHENG。WULUNDALUFAXIDUIKANGXINGDEZHENGMING,HAISHIDANFANGZHENGMINGDESHUMING,ZAILVXINGTIGONGZHENGJUZERENSHI,JIECONGDANFANGDANGSHIRENJIAODUCHUFA,JIUDANFANGTIGONGDEZHENGJUJINXINGPANDUAN。ZHONGGUOSIFAJIESHIHESHIWUZHONGCHUBUZHENGJUDEYINGYONG,YICONGDANFANGDANGSHIRENTIGONGZHENGJUZHENGMINGJIAODULIJIEHESHIYONG。YINCI,JIEJIANDALUFAXIDESHUMINGGUIZE,JIANGOUZHONGGUOCHUBUZHENGJUGUIZECHENGWEIYIZHONGXIANGDUIHELIDEFANGAN。

  DISAN,CHUBUZHENGJUDECHENGXUYUSHUMINGDECHENGXUGOUZAOXIANGTONG。SHUMINGGUIZEYIZHENGMINGCHENGXUSHISHIWEIZHU[19]109,SHUMINGCHENGXU、SHUMINGDUIXIANG(SHUMINGDEZHENGMINGDUIXIANG)、SHUMINGBIAOZHUN(SHUMINGDEZHENGMINGBIAOZHUN)HESHUMINGZEREN(SHUMINGZHONGDEZHENGMINGZEREN)JIEJUYOUZHENGYI。ZHIYUSHUMINGBENZHI,DEGUOTONGXINGGUANDIANRENWEIZHENGJUDIAOCHADEXUNSUXINGHEDIYUGAIRANXINGBIAOZHUNSHISHUMINGDEBENZHITEZHENG[20]240-249,RIBENXUELI[13]373HEZHONGGUOTAIWANDIQUXUELIYISHIRUCI[14]452-453。DANJIUDIYUGAIRANXINGBIAOZHUNDETEZHENG,DEGUOXUEZHELAIBOERRENWEISHUMINGBIAOZHUNYUZHENGMINGBIAOZHUNWUCHABIE[15]5-6,HOURIBENXUEZHEJIANTAITIANYITITONGYANGDEYIWEN[16]32,ZHONGGUOTAIWANDIQUYAORUIGUANGYITICHUTONGYANGZHIYI[17]286。ZHONGGUODALUWUJIEJIEJIANDEGUOXUELIZHONG“TUILUNDEQUESHIXING”HE“JIEGUODEQUESHIXING”DENGGAINIANFENXISHUMINGHEZHENGMINGCHAYI,RENWEISHUMINGHEZHENGMINGZAIXINZHENGBIAOZHUNSHANGBUCUNZAICHAYI[15]7-13。YI《RIBENMINSHIBAOQUANFA》WEILI,DI13TIAO[21]291GUIDINGBAOQUANCHENGXUDEQIDONGSHI,BIXUDUIBAOQUANDEBIYAOXING、BAOQUANDEQUANLIHUOQUANLIGUANXIYUYISHUMING。TONGSHI,GAIFADI20TIAO[21]292HEDI23TIAO[21]293FENBIEGUIDINGJIAKOUYAHEJIACHUFENDEBIYAOXING,JUNHANYOU“……KENENGXING……”ZHILEIDEBIAODA。CONGZHENGMINGFALIFENXI,ZHENGMINGYIGESHISHICUNZAIHEZHENGMINGYIGESHISHIYOUFASHENGDEKENENG,LIANGZHEDEZHENGMINGDUIXIANGBINGBUYIZHI,XIANRANHOUZHEXUYAOTIGONGDEZHENGJUYAOSHAOYIXIE。BAOQUANCHENGXUZHONGDEZHENGMINGDUIXIANGBIAOSHU,JISHUMINGZHONGZHENGMINGBIAOZHUNDIYUPUTONGZHENGMINGBIAOZHUN。YINCI,BENWENRENWEISHUMINGDEBENZHITEZHENGSHIZHENGJUDIAOCHACHENGXUDEJISHIXING。XIANGBIDUIKANGXINGDEZHENGMINGCHENGXU,YIZHENGMINGCHENGXUSHISHIWEIZHENGMINGDUIXIANGDESHUMINGZAIZHENGJUDIAOCHASHANGCHENGXIANCHUZHENGJUTIGONGDEDANFANGXINGHEZHENGMINGGUOCHENGDEXUNSUXING[19]112。YINCI,SHUMINGBIAOXIANCHUXINZHENGDEZANDINGXINGTEZHENGHEZHENGMINGCHENGXUDEFEIDUIKANGXING。TONGYANG,ZHONGGUOSHIWUHESIFAJIESHIZHENDUICHUBUZHENGJUDEYINGYONGZHONG,YITIXIANCHUTONGYANGTEZHENG。

赢发彩票代理   DISI,CHUBUZHENGJUDEZHENGMINGDUIXIANGYUSHUMINGDUIXIANGXIANGTONG。FENXIYIYOUDECHUBUZHENGJUTIAOWEN,CHU《MINSUJIESHI》DI284TIAOKEZHIJIELEIBISHUMINGWAI,ZAIYINGUOGUANXITUIDING、WENSHUZHENSHIXINGTUIDING、ZHEZUOQUANRENDINGDENGQINGKUANGZHONGDECHUBUZHENGJUJIEWUFAZHIJIELEIBISHUMINGGUIZE。YINWEISHUMINGDUIXIANGJIEWEICHENGXUXINGSHISHI,DANHOUJIZHONGCHUBUZHENGJUDEZHENGMINGDUIXIANGSHIYAOJIANSHISHI。ZAIDALUFAXI,BINGWEIWANQUANJIANGSHUMINGDUIXIANGXIANDINGWEICHENGXUSHISHI,ERSHIJIANGFALVWENTIPAICHUZAISHUMINGDUIXIANGZHIWAI[20]243-245。YICITUIDUAN,SHUMINGDUIXIANGBINGBUXIANYUCHENGXUSHISHI,RUDEGUOJIANGZHENGJUFANGFADESHENQING、DAILIZHIWEITUOHETONGWUXIAODEZHENGMING、FUZHUCANJIATIAOJIAN、SUSONGZHANGAIDENGSHIXIANGYIZUOSHUMINGDUIXIANG,GAISHUMINGDUIXIANGYUYAOJIANSHISHIJUYOUZHIJIEHUOJIANJIEXIANGGUANLIAN[19]110-111。JIYUZHENGJUDIAOCHADEJISHIXINGKAOLVERGUIDING,JIANGGAITEDINGZHENGMINGDUIXIANGZUOWEISHUMINGDUIXIANG,JINERSHIXIANYUZHENGMINGCHENGXUSHIXIANXIANGDUIFENLI,YIBAOZHENGZHENGMINGGUOCHENGJINXINGDEXUNSUXINGDENGFAJIAZHIZHUIQIU。YISUSONGZHANGAIYAOJIANWEILI,JIYUSUSONGYAOJIANSHENCHADEFEIJIEDUANXING,BENYINGWEIZHENGMINGDUIXIANGERYOUDANGSHIRENJINXINGDUIKANGXINGSHIZHENGMING,ERJUYOUZHENGMINGZERENFENPEI[22]406-409。DANSHI,ZAISHENQIANJIEDUANJINXINGSUSONGYAOJIANHESUSONGZHANGAIDESHENCHA,ZUOWEISHUMINGDUIXIANGKEDADAOCHENGXUXIAOLVJIAZHIZHIZHUIQIU[22]678-683。YOURUDEGUOXUELITONGSHUOJIANGFUZHUCANJIATIAOJIANZUOWEISHUMINGDUIXIANG[23]259,DANLUOSENBEIKEQUERENWEIQIYOUZHENGMINGZERENFENPEIZHIKONGJIAN[22]403,DANZHEIBINGBUYINGXIANGJIANGQIYUZHENGMINGCHENGXUXIANGDUIFENLIERSHIXIANCHENGXUXIAOLVZHIZHUIQIU。SUOYI,DALUFAXICONGXUELISHANGBINGBUDUISHUMINGDUIXIANGHEZHENGMINGDUIXIANGJINXINGYANGEQUFEN,JINLONGTONGDIJIANGSHUMINGDUIXIANGJIEDINGWEISHISHIWENTI[20]243-245。JUCI,SIFAJIESHIGUIDINGHESHIWUYINGYONGZHONG,CHUBUZHENGJUZHONGDEZHENGMINGDUIXIANGYUSHUMINGDUIXIANGBUCUNCHAYI。

  (二)初步证据规则的本体探讨

  1. 初步证据规则中的证明对象

赢发彩票代理   CONGYIYOUDECHUBUZHENGJUYINGYONGQINGKUANGGUANCHA,CHUBUZHENGJUGUIZEZHONGZHENGMINGDUIXIANGBAOKUOSANZHONG:YISHICHENGXUXINGSHISHI,ERSHITUIDINGQIANTISHISHI,SANSHIYUYAOJIANSHISHIGUANLIANDESHUMINGDUIXIANG。SHOUXIAN,CHENGXUSHISHISHUZHONGGUOTEYOUDEFALVGAINIAN[24]327-328,CAICHANBAOQUANDETIAOJIAN、XIANYUZHIXINGDETIAOJIAN、QISUTIAOJIANDENGDOUSHICHENGXUSHISHI。QICI,ZHENGJUSHISHIYUDALUFAXIZHIFUZHUSHISHIJUYI。ZUIGAOFADI83HAOZHIDAOANLIZHONGCHUBUZHENGJUDEYINGYONG,ZHENGMINGDUIXIANGJISHIFUZHUSHISHI。ZUIHOU,JIYUCHENGXUGOUJIADEXUYAO,MOUXIEYAOJIANSHISHIZHUANHUAWEISHUMINGDUIXIANG。《MINSUJIESHI》DI284TIAOZHONGDE“YOUSHEHUIGONGGONGLIYISHOUDAOSUNHAI……”JISHIYOUQINQUANJIEGUOZHEIYIYAOJIANSHISHIZHUANHUAERLAI,BEIHOUYINZANGZHEGONGYISUSONGLIANTIAOJIANYAOQIUJIYUSHENGSUKENENGXING。QIZHONG,CHENGXUSHISHIZUIWEIDIANXINGHEGUANGFAN,DISANLEIZHENGMINGDUIXIANGSHIDOUDIXINGFENLEI,RUGUOQIANLIANGLEIZHENGMINGDUIXIANGWUFAHANGAI,ZEKEGUIWEIDISANLEIZHENGMINGDUIXIANG。ZUIGAOFA2014NIANBANBUDE《GUANYUQUANMIANJIAQIANGHUANJINGZIYUANSHENPANGONGZUOWEITUIJINSHENGTAIWENMINGJIANSHETIGONGYOULISIFABAOZHANGDEYIJIAN》(JIANCHENG《YIJIAN》)DEDI8TIAOZHONGDEYINGUOGUANXITUIDING,SHISHIYINGUOGUANXIZHENGMINGXUYAOBEIQINQUANRENTIGONGCHUBUZHENGJUZHENGMING。YINWEIFALVMINGQUEGUIDINGYINGUOGUANXIYAOJIANDEZHENGMINGZERENDAOZHIXUYAOBEIQINQUANRENZHENGMINGSHISHIYINGUOGUANXICUNZAI,GAISHISHIYINGUOGUANXIDECUNZAIBIANSHIBEIQINQUANRENTIGONGDECHUBUZHENGJUDEZHENGMINGDUIXIANG。YINCI,GAIZHONGCHUBUZHENGJUTIAOWENZHONGDEZHENGMINGDUIXIANGSHIYAOJIANSHISHIZHIFALVYINGUOGUANXIDEGOUCHENGBUFEN,LISHUYUDISANGEFENLEI。

  2. 初步证据规则中的证明责任分配

  CHUBUZHENGJUGUIZEZHONGZHENGMINGDUIXIANGBINGFEIWANQUANWEICHENGXUSHISHI,YIYOUSHITISHIXIANG[19]110-111。ZHIYAOSHEJISHITISHIXIANG,ZEJUYOUZHENGMINGZERENDEFENPEI[22]401-409。YINCI,CHUBUZHENGJUGUIZEZHONGDEZHENGMINGZERENFENDAN,XUYAOYIQIZHONGDEZHENGMINGDUIXIANGLAIQUEDING。

  DIYI,CHUBUZHENGJUGUIZEDEZHENGMINGDUIXIANGWEICHENGXUXINGSHISHI,XIANGYINGZHENGMINGZERENYOUSHENQINGZHECHENGDAN。ZHULIUGUANDIANRENWEICHENGXUSHISHIWUZHENGMINGZERENFENPEI[25]180,SHAOSHUGUANDIANRENWEICHENGXUSHISHIYIYOUZHENGMINGZERENFENPEI[26]77-78。ZAIZHULIUGUANDIANZHONG,DANFANGDANGSHIRENTICHUCHUBUZHENGJUYOUFAGUANJINXINGLINSHIXINZHENG,DANGXINZHENGCHENGDUDADAOFADINGZHENGMINGBIAOZHUNHOU,FAGUANKEQIDONGCHENGXUSUQIU,FOUZEJIUBOHUIXIANGGUANSHENQING。CIZHONGYUNZUOJILIYUZHENGMINGZERENCAIPANZHONGZHEN、WEIYUZHENWEIBUMINGDE“SANFENFA”XIANGYI。YINCI,TONGSHUORENWEICHENGXUSHISHIBINGBUCUNZAIZHENGMINGZERENFENPEI。DANSHI,SHAOSHUGUANDIANYIGUANXIALIANJIEDIANSHIXIANGCUNZAIZHENWEIBUMINGLUNZHENGCHENGXUSHISHIYICUNZAIZHENGMINGZERENFENPEI[26]79-80,QIEQITIXIANCHUGONGFAXING、FEIZHENGYIXINGDENGTEZHENG[26]80-86。BENWENZANTONGSHAOSHUGUANDIAN,QIETONGYISHAOSHUGUANDIANZHONGCHENGXUSHISHIZHENGMINGZERENDEFENPEIFANGFA,JIYOUFALVHUOSIFAJIESHIGUIDINGDESHENQINGZHECHENGDANCHENGXUSHISHIDEZHENGMINGZEREN[26]91-96。DIER,ZHENGJUSHISHIZUOWEICHUBUZHENGJUDUIXIANGSHI,YOUJUZHENGZHECHENGDANZHENGJUSHISHIDEZHENGMINGZEREN。ZAIDALUFAXIZHENGMINGZERENLILUNZHONG,ZHENGMINGZERENFENPEIJINXIANYUYAOJIANSHISHI,ERJIANJIESHISHIHEFUZHUSHISHIWUKEGUANZHENGMINGZERENDEFENPEI[25]180。SUIZHELILUNFAZHAN,FUZHUSHISHIYICUNZAIZHENGMINGBIYAOXING[27]92-96。JUCI,DANGCHUBUZHENGJUGUIZEZHONGDEZHENGMINGDUIXIANGWEIFUZHUSHISHISHI,YICUNZAIZHENGMINGZERENFENPEI,YINGYOUJUZHENGZHECHENGDANSUOJUSHIZHENGJUDEZHENGJUSHISHIDEZHENGMINGZEREN。ZAIZUIGAOFADI83HAOZHIDAOANLIZHONG,XIEYIZHENSHIXINGZHEIYIZHENGJUSHISHIYIYOUKEGUANZHENGMINGZERENFENPEI,YOUTIJIAOGAIXIEYIDEDANGSHIRENCHENGDAN。DISAN,MOUXIEYAOJIANSHISHICHENGWEICHUBUZHENGJUGUIZEDEZHENGMINGDUIXIANGSHI,RENGYIYUANYOUSHITIGUIZEFENPEIYAOJIANSHISHIDEZHENGMINGZEREN。YIJUSHITIJINXINGDEZHENGMINGZERENFENPEI,TONGYANGSHIYONGYUCHUBUZHENGJUTIAOWENZHONGDESHITISHISHI。YI《SHANGBIAOSHOUQUANXINGZHENGQUEQUANJIESHI》DI19TIAOWEILI,GENJUXIANGGUANFALVLAIKAN,ZHEZUOQUANDEZHENGMINGZERENYINGYOUZHUZHANGZHEZUOQUANDERENLAICHENGDAN。ZAIGAICHUBUZHENGJUGUIZEZHONG,ZHUZHANGZHEZUOQUANDEDANGSHIRENYIXUYAODUIYU“XIANGYOUZHEZUOQUAN”ZHEIYIZHENGMINGDUIXIANGCHENGDANZHENGMINGZEREN。

  3. 初步证据规则中的证明标准

  WULUNSHI《MINSUJIESHI》DI284TIAO,HAISHIQITASIFAJIESHIJISHIJIANYINGYONGZHONGDECHUBUZHENGJU,JIEMEIYOUMINGQUECHUBUZHENGJUSHIYONGZHONGDEZHENGMINGBIAOZHUN。YICHUBUZHENGJUZHIDUGOUJIANZHONGGUOTESEDESHUMINGGUIZE,CHUBUZHENGJUGUIZEDEZHENGMINGBIAOZHUNSHIZHISHIDALUFAXIDESHUMINGBIAOZHUN。SUIRANDALUFAXIZHULIUGUANDIANRENWEISHUMINGDEBIAOZHUNSHUYUDAZHIQUEDING,DANBENWENCAISHAOSHUGUANDIAN,JISHUMINGYUZHENGMINGZAIZHENGMINGBIAOZHUNFANGMIANMEIYOUCHAYI,YINCI,CHUBUZHENGJUDEZHENGMINGBIAOZHUNYUYIBANDEMINSHISUSONGZHONGDEZHENGMINGBIAOZHUNBINGMEIYOUQUFEN。SUIRAN,DALUFAXILILUNDUIZHENGMINGBIAOZHUNCUNZAIHENDAZHENGZHI[16]27-50,DANTONGSHUOJIEYIGAODUGAIRANXINGBIAOZHUNLAIJIESHIFAGUANDENEIXINQUEXIN。ZHONGGUO《MINSUJIESHI》DI108TIAOHEDI109TIAOZHENGSHIGUIDINGZHONGGUODEMINSHIZHENGMINGBIAOZHUN,LIFABIAOSHUYI“GAODUKENENGXING”WEIZHU,XUELIYANJIUYIJIANGQIDENGTONGYUGAODUGAIRANXING。YINCI,CHUBUZHENGJUGUIZEZHONGDEZHENGMINGBIAOZHUNYINGZHUNYONG《MINSUJIESHI》DI108TIAOHEDI109TIAO。JIYU《MINSUJIESHI》DI108TIAOHEDI109TIAO,YOUGUANDIANRENWEIZHONGGUOYIJINGJIANGOUCENGCIHUAZHENGMINGBIAOZHUN[28]92。YINWEINEIXINQUEXINSHIYIZHONGZHUGUANZHUANGTAIERWUFAJUTIHENGLIANG,SUOYIQIANSHUGUANDIANBINGBUNENGCHENGLI。SUIRANZIYOUXINZHENGSHOUDAOLUOJIGUIZEHEJINGYANFAZEDEYUESHU[20]225-230,DANRENGBUNENGJIANGZIYOUXINZHENGKEGUANHUA。YOUYINMEIYOUJUEDUI“SHISHIWENTI”HE“FALVWENTI”DEQUFENBIAOZHUN,SUOYIZHENGMINGBIAOZHUNWUFAGUIWEI“SHISHIWENTI”HUO“FALVWENTI”[29]99。JISHISHUO,《MINSUJIESHI》DI108TIAOHEDI109TIAOYINGGAIGENGDUOJITUOYUFAGUANTONGGUOGEANJINXINGJIESHI,BUSHIYIZUOWEIQIANGZHIXINGGUIFANJINXINGSHIYONG。SUOYI,BENWENRENWEICHUBUZHENGJUGUIZEDEZHENGMINGBIAOZHUNCAIPUTONGZHENGMINGBIAOZHUN,QIEYINGYOUGEANSHENPANFAGUANZIYOUCAILIANG。

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  注释

  1以“初步证据”为关键词搜索北大法宝的案例库,共有案例共计万余件,其中,一则指导案例,20余则公报案例和典型案例。
  2《最高人民法院公报》2007年第7期。
  3“提单中有关货物状况的资料是由托运人提供的,承运人当知道或有合理根据怀疑其接收或装船的货物与提单记载不符或无法核对时,可在提单上作出批注,一经批注便在一定程度上起到否定提单记载的作用,承运人可在其批注的项目和范围内免除责任。未作批注的清洁提单,足以表明承运人全部认可提单上有关货物的记载事项,承运人即应当按提单记载交付货物。提单是物权凭证,善意受让提单的人有理由信赖其要取得的货物就是提单记载的货物。承运人向善意受让提单的包括收货人在内的第三人提出的关于其实际接收或装船的货物与清洁提单记载状况不同的证据,不足以对抗提单的记载。如果承运人交付的货物与提单记载不符,承运人应负相应的责任。”援引自《最高人民法院公报》2007年第7期。
  4最高人民法院发布2015年中国法院50件典型知识产权案例之三十七、2015年上海法院知识产权司法保护十大案例之四:卡骆驰公司诉厦门卡骆驰贸易有限公司擅自使用知名商品特有名称、包装、装潢纠纷案。
  5裁判原文为“着作权登记证书是权利人自愿取得的证明权属的初步证据,是否进行登记并不影响着作权人取得着作权。故对着作权权属的审查,一般以作品上的署名等为初步证据,除非有相反证据予以推翻。对初步证据的举证要求要结合案件的具体情况,所涉及作品的情况等合理进行确定……包括本案中的权利声明和水印,构成证明着作权权属的初步证据,在没有相反证据的情况下,可以作为享有着作权的证明。如果对初步证据要求过高,比如对每一张图片都要求取得摄影师的授权证明,或者每一张图片去做着作权登记的话,对权利人而言无疑是巨大的负担”。2014年中国法院50件典型知识产权案例之十一:华盖创意(北京)图像技术有限公司与哈尔滨正林软件开发有限责任公司侵害着作权纠纷提审案。
  6“网络用户利用网络服务实施侵权行为,被侵权人依据侵权责任法向网络服务提供者所发出的要求其采取必要措施的通知,包含被侵权人身份情况、权属凭证、侵权人网络地址、侵权事实初步证据等内容的,即属有效通知。网络服务提供者自行设定的投诉规则,不得影响权利人依法维护其自身合法权利”,源自于指导案例83号:威海嘉易烤生活家电有限公司诉永康市金仕德工贸有限公司、浙江天猫网络有限公司侵害发明专利权纠纷案。
  7“印章真实不等于协议真实。协议形成行为与印章加盖行为在性质上具有相对独立性,协议内容是双方合意行为的表现形式,而印章加盖行为是各方确认双方合意内容的方式,二者相互关联又相对独立。在证据意义上,印章真实一般即可推定协议真实,但在有证据否定或怀疑合意形成行为真实性的情况下,即不能根据印章的真实性直接推定协议的真实性。也就是说,印章在证明协议真实性上尚属初步证据,人民法院认定协议的真实性需综合考虑其他证据及事实”,源自于陈呈浴与内蒙古昌宇石业有限公司合同纠纷案((2014)民提字第178号)。
  8最高人民法院公布2009年中国法院知识产权司法保护50件典型案例之四十四:山东聚丰网络有限公司诉韩国MGAME公司、第三人天津风云网络技术有限公司网络游戏代理及许可合同纠纷管辖权异议上诉案。151
  9《最高人民法院公报》2007年第7期。15
赢发彩票代理   10陈呈浴与内蒙古昌宇石业有限公司合同纠纷案((2014)民提字第178号)。153

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