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消费时代审美观念新特点
发布时间:2020-01-15

  摘    要: 赢发彩票代理作为一种结构性力量,消费逻辑对整个社会进行了整体性塑造,引发了消费文化形态的形成,并引发了审美泛化的美学后果,其突出表现就是审美自律性的消解、审美功利性的彰显和审美快感化日盛。

  关键词: 消费逻辑; 美学后果; 审美观念;

  Abstract: As a structural force, consumption logic comprehensively has shaped the whole society,thus causing the consumer culture and the consequences of aesthetic generalization. The manifestations of the generalization are the disappearance of aesthetic self-autonomy, the emergence of aesthetic utilitarianism and the rise of aesthetic pleasure and sensation.

  Keyword: consumption logic; aesthetic consequences; aesthetic conceptions;

  XIAOFEISHEHUIZHONG,XIAOFEILUOJIZHANJUYAOJIN,CHENGWEIYIZHONGJIEGOUXINGLILIANG,DUIZHENGGESHEHUIJINXINGZHENGTIXINGSUZAO,ZHISHIWENHUAXINGTAIWEIZHIYIBIAN,CHENGXIANCHUZHANXINDEMIANMULAI。YISHIZHUXINGDOUPISHANGLEWENHUADEWAIYI,SHEHUIHUODONGBINGFULEWENHUADETEZHI,WENHUAZUOWEIXIAOFEIDUIXIANGYISHIMINGXIANDESHISHI,ERZHEITONGSHIYUSHIZHEWENHUAYECHENGLESHENMEIDUIXIANG,WUBUWENHUA,WUBUXIAOFEI,WUBUSHENMEI,ZHENGGESHEHUIDOUMIMANZHENONGHOUDEWENHUAXIAOFEIHESHENMEIXIAOFEIQIFEN,SHENGCUN、WENHUA、SHENMEISANZHEZAIXIAOFEISHEHUIZHONGQIMIAODIXIANGHUSHENTOU,BICIRONGGOUWEIYIZHONGXINXINGDESHEHUIYANGTAI。ZAIXIAOFEIYINGZAODETESHUWENHUALEIXINGLI,MEIXUEGUANNIANDEYIYANJIN,SHENMEIXINBIANQIAORANFASHENG。SHENMEIGUANNIANYUJIWANGDEMEIXUEZHUZHANGPANRANYOUBIE,YUCHUANTONGDEMEIXUELINIANLAKAILEJULI,XIAOFEISHIDAIDESHENMEIGUANNIANBIAOXIANCHULEXINDEZHIDI。

  一、审美自律性的消解

  ZUOWEIZUIZHONGYAODESHENMEIJIAZHI,ZILVXINGCENGJINGQUEBAOLEJINGDIANWENXUEYISHUDEMEIXUEJIAZHI,YERANGRENMENMILIANQIJIAN,ZHIZHEYUCONGWENXUEYISHUBENTIZHIZHONGXUNQIUSHENMEIXIANGSHOU。JIZHIHOUXIANDAIXIAOFEISHEHUI,XIFANGXIANDAIZHUYIZILVXINGDEGOUXIANGQUEZAODAOGENBENDEZHIYI,ZHUDUOXUERENZAILUNZHENGZILVXINGZHISHIYIZHONGHUANXIANG,JIWUFASHIXIANYEWUFAQUEZHENG。XIANDAIZHUYISHENMEIZILVXINGZUIMINGXIANDETEZHENGZAIYU:“FOUDING、JUCHIHEDIANFUZICHANJIEJIRICHANGSHENGHUOJIQIYISHIXINGTAI,JIBUJINFANPANCHUANTONG,DUIKANGYIQIMENGLIXINGZHUYIWEIDAIBIAODEZICHANJIEJIWENMING,ERQIEHAIYUTAZISHENXIANGDUILI,TONGGUOBAZIJISHIWEITUIFEIQIEZAIBUDUANHUIMIEZISHENZHONGXUNQIUFENGHUANGNIEPANZHIZAISHENG,JINERZAITIZHIWAIBAOCHIZIJIDEXIANFENGJIJINQINGXIANG。”[1](DAOLUNP.1)XIFANGXIANDAIPAI,PINGJIEYURICHANGSHENGHUOQIEGEDEFANGSHI,LITUQUEBAOYISHUDEZILVXINGPINGE,YOUYITUIFEIDEMIANMAOHEJIJINDEZITAIZUOWEICELVE,ZAIZILVXINGDEMILIANZHONGQIQIUZAISHENG。DANSHI,SUIZHEHOUXIANDAIXIAOFEISHEHUIDEDAOLAI,RENMENZHUJIANRENSHIDAO,SHENMEIBENSHENJIUSHIYIZHONGYISHIXINGTAIJIANGOU,SUOWEISHENMEIZILVXINGDEBEIMIAN,WANGWANGYOUZHESHEHUI、LISHIHEZHENGZHIYINSUQIANZAIDIFAHUIZHEZHIPEIXINGZUOYONG,JIANGYISHUZILVZHIYUGANGAJINGDI。

  也就是说,作为一个美学范畴,自律性的概念尤为资产阶级所钟爱,特别是在资本主义社会的早期发展阶段,彼时物质生产尚不发达,文化生产与物质生产均相对独立,艺术还可以从实际语境中脱离出来,与资产阶级的日常生活保持一定的距离,在某种程度上表现出自律性的特征,形成了一种艺术作品孤绝于社会现实之外的观念。但是,艺术与生活的脱离本身就是一种历史化的过程,是社会发展的结果,会受到社会历史因素的支配和制约,在此基础上形成的艺术自律观念的合理性也将面临挑战,这在后现代消费社会尤为突出。事实上,“这块飞地”避不开社会实践,居于支配性地位的社会秩序终究要发挥影响,或以显性的方式进行,或以隐性的方式实施。所谓自律,标示着艺术与生活实践相互分离这一事实,但这种分离却把社会历史过程抽空了,将其虚无化了,艺术成了艺术本质演绎发展的结果。“艺术与生活实践之间有着交互性的辩证关系,而‘自律’意味着自足性,自足的事物不需要依赖他者而存在,这就是试图将一个需要中介性过程辩证性的发展简化成为直接性的‘神话式’演变,而由于这种改造出于某种目的歪曲了事情的真相,所以它向我们呈现为一种曼海姆意义上的意识形态。”[2]此处曼海姆式的意识形态,亦即统治集团的特定的集体无意识,是特定阶层维护自身利益的某种策略,而这种策略往往罔顾事实,甚至故意歪曲社会现实。表面上看,审美自律性的概念,将艺术与社会生活脱离开来,从而为艺术垦拓了更大的自由发展空间,也被赋予了反抗资产阶级权力规训的可能性,但是,这种自由发展空间无疑还将受到种种社会秩序的操控,也必然遭遇资本运作机制的约束和羁绊。因而,审美自律颇似一张画饼充饥的理想画卷,既美好又诱人,但实际上却具有麻醉剂的功能,让审美主体一味沉醉其中而难以自拔,忘却了马克思意义上的反抗。而事实上,所谓的审美自律不可能脱离社会秩序的支配,不可能隔绝社会历史的规约,自律的背后往往有着他律的规制,这种规制其实就是一种意识形态的隐蔽呈现。
 

消费时代审美观念新特点
 

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  二、审美功利性彰显

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  三、审美快感化日盛

赢发彩票代理   SHENMEIDEBENLAIMIANMUJIGANXINGTIYAN,BUGUOSUIZHEXIAOFEISHEHUIDELAILIN,ZHEIZHONGGANXINGTIYANYUELAIYUELIUYUKUAIGANHUA。XIAOFEISHEHUIDEDIANXINGTEZHENGJIUSHIFUHAOXIAOFEI,FUHAODEXIANGZHENGYIYIZHIHUANLESHANGPINDESHIYONGJIAZHI,JIHUSUOYOUDESHANGPINDOUBEIFUHAOHUA,BEINARUXIANGZHENGTIXIDEJIAZHIXITONG,FUHAOSHENGCHANCHENGLEXIAOFEISHEHUIZUIJUTESEDEJINGGUAN。FUHAODELINGDONG,ZAIXIAOFEISHEHUIHUIJIULENIXIANGHEFANGZHENDEHUAJUAN,YEYOUDAORENMENZAISHENMEIHUADETIYANZHONGWANCHENGDUISHANGPINDEGOUMAIHEXIAOFEI。SHEHUISHENGHUOGUYOUDEGUILVZOUXIANGXIAOJIE,SHEHUIGUANXIGENGQUDUOYUAN,FUHAOCHENGZAIQIGENGDUODEWENHUAYIYI,FAHUIZHEGUIFANHUAHEJIEGOUHUADEZUOYONG。FUHAO“DEGUODUSHENGCHANHEYINGXIANGYUFANGZHENDEZAISHENGCHAN,DAOZHILEGUDINGYIYIDESANGSHI,BINGSHISHIZAIYISHENMEIDEFANGSHICHENGXIANCHULAI。”[6](P.21)FUHAODESHENGCHAN,YINGXIANGDECHUANBO,FANGZHENDEKUOZHANG,NIXIANGDEMANYAN,ZHEIYIQIEDUISHEHUISHENGHUOJINXINGLEYOUXIAODEZHONGZHI,CUCHENGLEYIZHONGDIANXINGDENITAIHUANJING。NITAIHUANJINGDEBIAOYIGUIZEYIFASHENGXIANZHEDEBIANHUA,FUHAONENGZHIHESUOZHIJIANDETONGYIXINGMIANLINFENJIE,BIAOZHENGLILUNYEXIANDEPOWEIDANBO,ZHEIYIQIEDOUBUZAISHIYONGYUYIDAZHONGCHUANBOWEIZHONGYAOTEZHENGDEXINXIHUANJING,ZHEIZHONGHUANJINGZAIYEBUXIANGJINGZIBANKEGUANDIDUIWAIBUHUANJINGJIAYIFANYINGHEZAIXIAN,ERSHIJINGYOUCHUANMEIDELINXUAN、SHEJIHEJIAGONG,BINGZHONGXINJIEGOUHUAHOUCHENGXIANZAIRENMENMIANQIANDEXUNIHUANJING。ZAIZHEIZHONGXUNIHUANJINGZHONG,RENMENDUISHIWUDERENZHIYOULEDIANFUXINGDEBIANHUA,DIANSHI、GUANGBO、WANGLUODENGCHUANMEISHOUDUANHUIJIANGMOUYIZHONGDASHIJIANCHENGXIANCHULAI,GONGGUANZHONGLAILIJIEHEJIESHOU,DANZHEIZHONGCHENGXIANHUOYUSHIJIANBENSHENWUGUAN,YAOMESHIJINGGUOJIAGONGSHEJIDEZHESHE,YAOMESHIYOUBUTONGCHUANMEITIGONGDECHAYIHUABIAOSHU,SHENZHITONGYIMEIJIEZUOTIANHEJINRIDEBAODAOYEKENENGNANYUANBEIZHE。MANMANDI,RENMENXIANGYANCHENGXI,DANQUEXIYANBUCHA,JIESHOULEZHEIZHONGXUNIDEZHENSHI,BUZAIZHUISUOKEGUANSHIZAIDEZHENSHIXING。DAZHONGCHUANMEISUOYINGZAODENITAIHUANJING,BUJINGAIBIANLERENMENDERENZHIHEXINGWEIMOSHI,ERQIEYEDUIKETISHIJIEZUOLEGAIXIE。KEGUANDISHUO,ZHEIZHONGZHUANGTAIYUXIAOFEISHEHUIDACHENGLEMOUZHONGHEMOUGUANXI,XIAOFEILUOJIZHENGSHITONGGUODAZHONGCHUANMEISUOYINGZAODENITAIHUANJING,LAIJIFAXIAOFEIZHEDETIYANYUWANGHEQINGGANGONGMING,LAITIAODOUXIAOFEIZHEDEGOUMAIYUHEXIAOFEIYU,CONGERSHIXIANXIAOFEIZHUYIDECHUZHONG。“DAZHONGCHUANBOMEIJIEZUITUCHUDEBIANHUA,ZAIYUTAZHUANERSUZHURENMENDEYUWANG、CHONGDONG、QIANYISHIDENG,ZAIDUIYUYAN、HUAMIAN、YINXIANG、SECAIDENGYINSUDEJISHUHECHENGZHONG,PINFANCIJIZHERENDEGANSHOUXINLI,YOUDAODAZHONGDUISHENGHUODEDANGXIAXINGTIYANHEJISHIGANJUE。”[7](P.48)XIAOFEISHEHUIZHONGDAZHONGCHUANMEIDEZHEIXIEZUITUCHUDEBIANHUA,HUIZHIZAOCHUDONGXINLINGDEMEIXUETUJING,ZHEIWUYIJIANGQIANGHUAXIAOFEIZHEDESHENMEITIYANJIQING,SHIQIMILIANHEZHUIZHUDANGXIAXINGDEJISHIGANJUE,ZAIKUAIGANHUADEQUSHIXIAWANCHENGXIAOFEI。CISHI,RENMENXIAOFEIDEDUIXIANGYIYUANLIWUPINDESHIYONGXING,ERSHIZHUANBIANWEISHANGPINDEFUHAOJIAZHI,ZHEIZHONGFUHAOJIAZHISHIJIEYOUCHUANMEIDESHENGGUANGYINGXIANGLAICHUANDADE。“DUISHANGPINYINGXIANG(image)DEXIAOFEI,QIYIYIHEJIAZHIJIANGCHAOGUODUISHANGPINCHUANTONGDESHIYONGJIAZHIBENSHENDEXIAOFEI。TONGGUOGUANGGAODEYANSHE,YONGCHANGDEXIAOFEIPINBIANJUYOULEMOUZHONGMENGHUANTEZHI,YULUOMANDIKE、YUWANG、XIWANGDENGDENGRENSHENGYIXUXINGCHENGMOUZHONGXIANGZHENGGUANXI”[8](PP.40-41)。YINER,SHANGPINDEMEIXUEWAIYIZHIWEIZHONGYAO,SHANGPINDECHENLIEYANGSHIXUYAOMEIXUEDECHOUHUA,SHANGPINDEKONGJIANANZHIYELIBUKAIMEIXUEDESHEJI,ZHEIYIQIEDOUJIANGZAISHENMEIHUADEGUOCHENGZHONGWANCHENG,JIAZHIDAZHONGCHUANMEISUOCHENGXIANDEFUHAOHEYINGXIANGYOUHUO,HUICHENGLECIJIRENMENXIAOFEIDEJIAOXIANG,ZHEIZHONGJIAOXIANGQUEBAOLEXIAOFEIDEGUOCHENGYESHISHENMEIDEGUOCHENG,XIAOFEIJIUSHIZAISHENMEITIYANDEKUAIGANHUAGUOCHENGZHONGWANCHENGDE。BAODELIYAFANFUSHUOMING,XIAOFEIXINGWEIDEMUBIAOZHIXIANGDUIYUWANGQUZHEYINHUIDEBIAODA,ZHIXIANGTONGGUOQUFENFUHAOLAISHENGCHANJIAZHIDESHEHUIBIANMA。ZAIXIAOFEIXINGWEIZHONG,FUHAOSHENGCHANDEZHIYUEJIZHISHIXIANGZHENGLUOJI,XIANGZHENGLUOJISUOXINGCHENGDEYUWANGXIUCIRANGWUPINYIYUQIMINGQUEDESHIYONGGONGNENGGEDUANLELIANXI,TONGSHIRANGWUPINDEFUHAOZAIXIANGZHENGXULIEZHONGWANCHENGLEYIYISHENGCHAN,ZHEIZHONGYIYISHENGCHANYUXIAOFEIZHESHENMEITIYANDEKUAIGANHUABAOCHILETIANRANDELIANXI。ZHENGXIANGZHOUXIANSUOYAN:“RICHANGSHENGHUOSHENMEIHUABENZHISHANGNAISHITONGGUOSHANGPINXIAOFEILAICHANSHENGGANXINGTIYANDEYUYUE。……TIYANGUANCHUANRICHANGSHENGHUODEGEGECENGMIAN,TAGOUCHENGLESHENMEIHUADEXINGFUGANHEMANZUGANDEZHONGYAOZHIBIAO。”[9](P.287)ZHEIYEJIUSHUOMING,XIAOFEISHEHUIZHONGDESHENMEITIYANYIJINGCHENJINZAIRICHANGSHENGHUOZHONG,RICHANGSHENGHUODEFANGFANGMIANMIANJUNBEINARUSHENMEIHUADEJINCHENG,YINERBEINARUSHENMEITIYANDEFANCHOU。RICHANGSHENGHUODESHENMEITIYAN,XIANZAIYUELAIYUEGANGUANHUA,YUELAIYUEYIKUAISHIHEMANZUWEIHUDE,ZHUJIANCHENGWEIHENGLIANGYIGERENXINGFUYUFOUDEBIAOCHI。BUFANGSHEXIANG,RUGUOYIGERENGUBUZIFENG,DUOZAIXIAAIDEXIAOTIANDI,PAICHIXIAOFEISHEHUIDEZHONGZHONGQIGUAN,YANQIXIAOFEIWENHUADEFUHAOZHENGXIANG,QIEBUSHUOTAHENNANZUODEDAO,JIBIANNENGGOUSHEFADACIJINGJIE,YEHENNANJITATIESHANGXINGFUDEBIAOQIAN。XINGFUSHIYIZHONGGANJUE,SHIYIZHONGJIYUTIYANDEGANJUE,JUEFEICHOUXIANGDELIXINGPANDUAN,JUEFEIZHISHIXUEDEKEGUANRENDING,WULIHAIDESHENMEIJINGGUANRUGUOYUTALAKAILEJULI,JIUZAIYEDAIBULAIXINGFUDEGANJUE;ERRUGUOSHIJIYUTIYAN,TADEXINGFUYELIBUKAIXIAOFEISHEHUIRICHANGSHENGHUODESHENMEITIYAN。

赢发彩票代理   XIAOFEIWENHUAZHONG,“DAZHONGXIAOFEIYUNDONGBANSUIZHEFUHAOSHENGCHAN、RICHANGTIYANHESHIJIANHUODONGDEZHONGXINZUZHI”[6](P.165),WEIRAODEZHOUXINJIUSHICIJIXIAOFEIZHESHENMEITIYANDEKUAIGANHUA,JIEYICUFAXIAOFEIZHEPUBIANDEGANJUELIANXIANGHEXIAOFEIYUWANG。WEIDACIMUDE,“BASHENMEIDUIXIANGTUXIANGHUA”“BASHENMEIDUIXIANGGANGUANHUA”“BASHENMEIDUIXIANGSHENTIHUA”[10],ZHEISANZHEJISHISHENMEITIYANKUAIGANHUADEZHIJIEBIAOXIAN,TONGSHIYOUSHIXUNSUSHIXIANSHENMEITIYANKUAIGANHUADEYOUXIAOTUJING。SHOUTINGGUANGBO,DAKAIDIANSHI,DENGLUWANGLUO,ZOUJINYINGYUAN,XINSHANGQUYI,HUOZHECANYUXIAOFEISHEHUIDEGEZHONGWENHUAYISHUHUODONG,WOMENHUIFAXIANYIJINGTUXIANGHUA、GANGUANHUAHESHENTIHUADESHENMEIDUIXIANGBIBIJIESHI,YIJIANGRENMENTUANTUANWEIKUN,ZHEIXIESUOWEIDESHENMEIDUIXIANGYIYULEDAZHONGWEINENGSHI,YIZHUANQUMAYANGWEIZONGZHI,QUEBUDUANDIXIANGZHEWENHUAWUTAIDEZHONGXINYIDONG,BUDUANDIXIAOJIEHONGDAXUSHI,BUDUANDICHOUKONGSHENMEIJIAZHI。DANGRAN,DAZHONGYOUYULEDEQUANLI,YOUPAIJIEYALIHESHIFANGYAYIDEBENNENGXUQIU。JIBIANRUCI,SHENMEITIYANDEKUAIGANHUAYEXUYAOSHEDINGBIYAODEJIEXIAN,SUIRANTAFAHUIZHEXIAOFEISHEHUIYONGDONGJIHEJIASUQIDEGONGNENG,DANSHEHUIGENGXUYAOTASHIFANGCHULIANGXINGDEDONGLI。

  XIANERYIJIAN,XIAOFEISHIDAISHENMEIDEZHONGZHONGZHENGHOU,JIFANYINGLESHENMEIFANHUAYUSHENMEIGUANNIANYANJINDEQUSHI,YOUSHIDANGXIASHENMEIWENHUADEZUCHENGBUFEN,JUEBURONGHUSHI。DUIXIAOFEIWENHUAFAZHANMAILUODESHULI,DUISHENMEIXINDONGXIANGDEFENXI,DUIXIAOFEILUOJIMEIXUEHOUGUODEJIESHI,YOUZHUYUWOMENZHUNQUEBAWOXIAOFEIWENHUADEBENZHITEZHENG,YOUZHUYUWOMENSHENKERENSHIXIAOFEISHIDAISHENMEIFANCHOUDEBIANQIAN,CONGERZAILIZUXIANSHIDEJICHUSHANG,BAWOSHENMEIGUILV,BIANMINGMEIXUELUXIANG,CUJINWOGUOSHEHUIZHUYIWENYIDEJIANKANGFAZHAN,CUJINWOGUOSHEHUIZHUYIWENHUADEFANRONGCHANGSHENG。

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  [2]金永兵.“后文化”时代审美还能诗意地批判与拯救现实吗?[J].当代文坛, 2018(4).
  [3] 阿多诺.文化工业再思考[J].高丙中译.文化研究第1辑.天津社会科学院出版社,2000.
  [4]王晓路等.文化批评关键词研究[M].北京:北京大学出版社,2007.
  [5]瓦尔特·本雅明.机械复制时代的艺术作品[M].王才勇译.北京:中国城市出版社,2002.
  [6]迈克·费瑟斯通.消费文化与后现代主义[M].刘精明译.南京:译林出版社,2000.
  [7]张晶.论审美文化[C].北京:北京广播学院出版社, 2003.
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