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我国女职工劳动禁忌规定实施困境与完善建议
发布时间:2020-01-13

  摘    要: 中国政府历来十分重视女职工劳动保护工作,特别是在女职工劳动禁忌规定方面做出了积极的努力,持续推进了许多有效的措施,形成了《劳动法》、《劳动合同法》、《企业职工生育保险试行办法》和《女职工劳动保护特别规定》等一系列的相关法律法规体系。这些法律法规措施切实维护了女职工的合法权益和特殊权益,发挥了积极的社会作用。但在具体实施的过程中也出现了一些不容忽视的新问题,需要进一步给予关注和改进,使女职工的合法权益和特殊权益在新时代得到更为深入有效的维护。

  关键词:赢发彩票代理 女职工; 劳动禁忌; 劳动保护; 权益保障;

  Abstract: The Chinese government has always attached great importance to the labor protection of female employees, especially in the labor taboo regulations, and has continued to promote many effective measures to form the Labor Law and the Labor Contract Law, a series of related laws and regulations such as the "Trial Measures for Maternity Insurance for Enterprise Employees" and "Special Provisions on Labor Protection for Female Employees". These laws and regulations have effectively safeguarded the legitimate rights and interests of female workers and played a positive social role. However, in the process of concrete implementation, some new problems that cannot be ignored have emerged. Further attention and improvement are needed to ensure that the legitimate rights and interests of female workers and special rights are more deeply and effectively maintained in the new era.

  Keyword:赢发彩票代理 Female Employees; Labor Taboos; Labor Protection; Rights Protection;

  YIZHIYILAI,ZAISHIJIEFANWEINEIJIYUDUINVXINGDESHENTITEDIANHESHENGLIJINENGDEKAOLV,DUIJIUYEZHONGDENVXINGTIGONGLEJIAOWEIKUANFANDEBAOHUXINGDELAODONGCUOSHI,ERLAODONGJINJIGUIDINGCHENGWEINVZHIGONGLAODONGBAOHUDEZHONGDIANGONGZUO。ZAIWOGUO,ZHENGFUCENGXIANHOUZHIDING《ZHONGHUARENMINGONGHEGUONVGONGBAOHUTIAOLI(CAOAN)》、《FUNVQUANYIBAOZHANGFA(XIUZHENGAN)》、《LAODONGFA》、《LAODONGHETONGFA》HE《NVZHIGONGLAODONGBAOHUTEBIEGUIDING》DENGYIXILIEDEFALVFAGUI,JIUNVZHIGONGDETESHUQUANYIJINXINGLEZHUANXIANGXINGDEBAOHU。ZHEIXIEFAGUICUOSHIDEGUANCHELUOSHIQIESHIJIAQIANGLEDUINVZHIGONGDELAODONGBAOHU,WEIHULENVZHIGONGDEHEFAQUANYIHETESHUQUANYI,DUIYUCUJINNANNVPINGDENG,TIGAORENKOUSUZHI,TUIJINSHEHUIFAZHANFAHUILEJIJIDEZUOYONG。YUCITONGSHI,ZAISHISHIDEGUOCHENGZHONGYECHUXIANLEYIXIEXUYAOJIAYIGUANZHUDEWENTI。

  一、我国女职工劳动禁忌规定在实践中带来的启示

  我国政府历来十分重视女职工的劳动保护工作,早在1950年中华全国总工会女工部就开始起草国家女职工劳动保护法规,1956年形成了《中华人民共和国女工保护条例(草案)》,期间经过反复修改和完善。在1988年国务院第九号令发布了《女职工劳动保护规定》,原劳动部于1990年颁布了《女职工禁忌劳动范围的规定》,而后又相继出台了《妇女权益保障法(修正)》和《女职工劳动保护特别规定》等与女职工劳动禁忌相关的法律法规,形成了具有鲜明中国时代特色的女职工劳动保护法律体系。伴随着我国经济高速发展,和女职工相关劳动禁忌法规措施的推进,给我们带来了许多深刻的启示。
 

我国女职工劳动禁忌规定实施困境与完善建议
 

  (一)医学根据是规范女职工劳动禁忌范围的基础

  TONGCHANGWOMENSUOSHUODENANNVBUTONG,ZAIBENZHIYIYISHANGJIANGSHIZHIYOUYUSHENGLIJIEGOUDEBUTONGERCHANSHENGSHENGLI、XINLISHANGDECHAYIHEQUBIE,YOUCIDAILAILENANNVLIANGXINGSHEHUISHENGCUN、SHEHUIBIAOXIANYIJISHEHUIFAZHANSHANGDEBUTONG。DANTONGSHIWOMENZHUYIDAO,NANNVTIGE、TILICUNZAIZHEGENBENXINGDECHAYISHIZIRANBENXINGSUOZAI,DANZAISHIJIDELAODONGSHENGCHANGUOCHENGZHONGYINFUZHONG、WENDU、FUSHE、HAIBADENGYINSUYINGXIANG,DAOZHINANNVLIANGXINGSHENGLI、SHENGHUAJINENGDEGAIBIAN,WANGWANGSHIGETICHAYIHUIDAYUXINGBIECHAYI。NVXINGSHENGLIJIEPOUDETEDIAN,GOUCHENGLEYUNANXINGXIANZHEDECHAYI,TEBIESHIBIAOXIANZAISHENGZHIXITONGHESHENGZHIJINENGSHANG。ZHURUDANGNVZHIGONGCONGSHIFUZHONGXINGLAODONGSHI,FUYAZENGJIA,HUIYINGXIANGSHENGZHIQIGUANDEWEIZHIHEGONGNENG。[1]YINCIYIXUESHIJIAOSHINVZHIGONGLAODONGBAOHUDEZHUYAOLILUNYIJU。DANSHIRUGUOJINJINQIANGDIAONANNVSHENGLIJIEGOUSHANGDECHAYIXING,BASHENGCHANLAODONGGUOCHENGZHONGNANNVLIANGXINGSHENGLI、SHENGHUAJINENGDEBUTONGZUOWEIQUEDINGJINJILAODONGDEYIJU,BUNENGKEGUAN、QUANMIAN、KEXUEYIJIYOUXIAODIBAOHUNVZHIGONGZAILAODONGGUOCHENGZHONGDESHENGMINGANQUANYUJIANKANG,ERSHIYINGDANGHAIYAOSHEJIYINENGFOUDUILAODONGGUOCHENGZHONGDENVZHIGONGJIANKANGDAILAIWEIHAIZUOWEIPANDUANJINJIDEYIJU。WOMENZAIBAWOYIXUEGENJUDETONGSHI,HAIYINGGENGDUODIQIANGDIAOSHIYONGXING、ZHENDUIXINGHEKEXINGXING。LIRU1988NIAN9YUE1RIZHENGSHISHISHIDE《NVZHIGONGLAODONGBAOHUGUIDING》ZHONGNVZHIGONGYUNQIJINJICONGSHILAODONGDEGEXIANGGUIDINGJIUSHIJIANLIZAIDALIANGDEDIAOCHASHULI、SHIZHENGFENXIHEKEXUEYANJIUDEJICHUZHISHANG。DANGSHIYUANLAODONGBUWEITUOYUANBEIJINGYIKEDAXUEGONGGONGWEISHENGXUEYUANFUNVLAODONGWEISHENGYANJIUXIAOZUJINXINGZHUANXIANGDEDIAOYANKAOCHAJIYIXUELUNZHENG。YANJIUZUDUIGUONEI11GECHENGSHI263GEGONGCHANG84000YUMINGNVZHIGONGJINXINGLESHIDIZOUFANGDIAOCHA,SHEJIDAOLE28ZHONGJIECHUXINGZHIYEYOUHAIYINSU,QIZHONGBAOKUO17ZHONGDUINVZHIGONGDESHENGZHIJIANKANGJITAIERFAYUYOUZHIJIEHUOJIANJIEYINGXIANGDEZHIYEWEIHAIYINSU。CHUCIZHIWAI,YANJIUZUHAICANZHAOLEDALIANGDEGUOWAIWENXIANZILIAO,YOUSHAIXUANCHULE11ZHONGYOUKENENGZAOCHENGNVZHIGONGJIANKANGTEBIESHITAIERFAYUYOUQIANZAIWEIHAIDEZHIYEYINSU,BINGDUIQIJINXINGLEBIDUIFENXI,DENGJIHUAFENHEZUIZHONGPINGPAN。[2]

  (二)理性扩大范围是劳动禁忌规定呈现出的发展趋势

赢发彩票代理   1988NIAN9YUE1RIQISHIXINGDE《NVZHILAODONGBAOHUGUIDING》DIWUTIAOZHONGMINGQUEGUIDING:JINZHIANPAINVZHIGONGCONGSHIKUANGSHANJINGXIA、GUOJIAGUIDINGDEDISIJITILILAODONGQIANGDUDELAODONGHEQITANVZHIGONGJINJICONGSHIDELAODONG。[3]ZAICIHOUXIANGGUANDEFAGUITIAOLIZHONG,ZHEIYIGUIDINGCHENGWEIZHONGGUONVZHIGONGLAODONGJINJIGUIDINGDEJIZHUNXIAN,BINGYICIWEIJICHUCONGJINGQI、YUNQI、CHANQIHEBURUQISIGETESHUSHIQIJINXINGLEJINYIBUDEGUIFANSHUOMING。JINGUANZHEIYILAODONGJINJIFANWEIJIZHUNXIANDEGUIDINGSHICUXIANTIAODE,BIJIAOLONGTONGHEYUANZE,DANSHIYIHOUDEXIANGGUANFAGUIZAIXIUGAIHEZENGJIANZHONGDOUSHIYICIWEIYIJUZHANKAIDE,QIZHONGDEZHONGXINSIXIANGSHIXIANERYIJIANDE:JIYOUDU、YOUHAI、ZHONGTILIGAOFUHEYIJIKONGQINONGDUCHAOGUOGUOJIAZUOYEBIAOZHUNDELAODONGJIUSHINVZHIGONGLAODONGJINJIDEFANWEI,ZHUYAOSHEJIGENJUNVXINGSHENGLIJIEPOUDETEDIANJITILI,YOUBIYAOTIGONGDETESHUBAOHULAODONG;DUINVXINGSHOUYUNYOUKENENGZAOCHENGDEWEIHAI;NVZHIGONGHUAIYUNQIJIANDEJIANKANGJITAIERFAYUYINGXIANGJIANQUANFENMIAN;FURUQIJIANDUIMURUWEIYANGDEYINGXIANGDENGSIGEFANGMIANDENEIRONG。GUOJIAZAIJINXINGDINGCENGSHEJISHI,JIANCHIDUINVZHIGONGYOUXIANBAOHUDELINIAN,CHILIXINGSHENZHONGDETAIDU,MEIYOUJINYIBUKUODAJINJILAODONGDEFANWEI,BINGMEIYOUSUIZHECHANYEJIEGOU、YETAIFENBU、LAODONGDUIXIANG、SHENGCHANTIAOJIANDENGYINSUBIANHUA,WUXIANZHIKUODAFANWEI。ZHEIWUYISHIDUINVXINGXIANXINGDEJIUYEBAOHU,ZUIDACHENGDUJIANSHAODUINVXINGPINGDENGJIUYEQUANDEYINGXIANG。YOUCIKEYIKANCHU,DUINVZHIGONGJINJICONGSHILAODONGFANWEIGUIDINGDECHONGSHIYUWANSHANSHIYIGEZHANGQIDERENWU,SUIZHEGUOJIAJINGJIDEBUTONGSHIQIDEFAZHAN,XINQINGKUANG、XINWENTIYESUIZHICHUXIAN,YINERJIUHUIDAILAIXINDEBIANGE。WOMENZHIYOUZAISHIJIANZHONGBUDUANDIFAXIAN、BUDUANDIZONGJIEYIJIBUDUANDILIXINGSIKAO,JIANCHIBUXIE,CAINENGDEDAOZHUBUJIAQIANGHEWANBEI,JINYIBUYOUXIAOBAOHUNVZHIGONGZISHENJIHOUDAIDEJIANKANG。

  (三)与时俱进是实施女职工劳动禁忌规定的核心

赢发彩票代理   CONG1988NIAN9YUE1RIZHENGSHISHISHIDE《NVZHIGONGLAODONGBAOHUGUIDING》DAO2012NIAN4YUE28RI《NVZHIGONGLAODONGBAOHUTEBIEGUIDING》(YIXIAJIANCHENG《TEBIEGUIDING》)DECHUTAI,LISHI24NIAN,ZHEIYISHIQIZHENGSHIZHONGGUOJINGJISHEHUIGAIGEFAZHANZUIZHONGYAODELISHISHIQI,NVZHIGONGLAODONGJINJIGUIDINGYECHENGXIANCHUBUDUANWANSHANDEGUOCHENG,QIZHONGYUSHIJUJINDESECAIZUIWEIXIANZHE。ZAI《NVZHIGONGLAODONGBAOHUTEBIEGUIDING》DISITIAOZHICHU:“YONGRENDANWEIYINGDANGZUNSHOUNVZHIGONGJINJICONGSHIDELAODONGFANWEIDEGUIDING。YONGRENDANWEIYINGDANGJIANGBENDANWEISHUYUNVZHIGONGJINJICONGSHIDELAODONGFANWEIDEGANGWEISHUMIANGAOZHINVZHIGONG;NVZHIGONGJINJICONGSHIDELAODONGFANWEIYOUBENGUIDINGFULULIESHI。GUOWUYUANANQUANSHENGCHANJIANDUGUANLIBUMENHUITONGGUOWUYUANRENLIZIYUANSHEHUIBAOZHANGXINGZHENGBUMEN、GUOWUYUANWEISHENGXINGZHENGBUMENGENJUJINGJISHEHUIFAZHANQINGKUANG,DUINVZHIGONGJINJICONGSHIDELAODONGFANWEIJINXINGDIAOZHENG”。[4]CONGLIFABENSHENLAIJIANG,2012NIANCHUTAIDE《TEBIEGUIDING》JIANGNVZHIGONGJINJICONGSHIDELAODONGFANWEIYIGUIFANXINGFULUDEXINGSHILIESHI,DUIYUANYOUDENVZHIGONGJINJICONGSHIDELAODONGFANWEIJINXINGMINGXIANDEDIAOZHENG,BINGZUOCHULEYIJUJINGJISHEHUIFAZHANSHIJIQINGKUANGSHISHIDIAOZHENGDEGUIDING,YOUBUBANGUIZHANGTIGAODAOXINGZHENGFAGUI,BIMIANLEYINDIAOZHENGFANWEIERPINFANXIUDINGDEZHUANGKUANG,CHONGFENZHANGXIANLESHIDAIXINGHEFAZHANXINGDETEZHENG,BUSHIWEI《TEBIEGUIDING》ZHONGZUIJUFAZHANSECAIDEBIAOSHU,SHILIANGDIANSUOZAI。ZHEIJIUSHUOMING,NVZHIGONGLAODONGJINJIGUIDINGBIXUZHANGXIANFAZHIJINGSHEN,YIDINGYAOHEBUTONGSHIQIDEGUOJIAJINGJIFAZHANXIANGWENHE,XIANGPIPEI,ZAIJIZUNZHONGKEGUANBIANHUAFAZHANDESHIJI,GAIBIANGUYOUDERENSHI,TONGSHIYOUNENGGOUHEFAZHANZHEDEKEGUANSHIJIXIANGQIHE,CAINENGGAIBIANHESHIDAIBUFUHE、BUSHIYINGDEZHUANGKUANG,CONGERGENGHAODIWEINVZHIGONGFUWU。

  二、现行的女职工劳动禁忌规定在实践中的突出问题

  (一)女职工劳动禁忌范围过于宽泛

赢发彩票代理   2012NIAN4YUE28RIGONGBUSHISHIDE《NVZHIGONGJINJICONGSHIDELAODONGFANWEI》GENYUANYU1988NIAN9YUE1RIZHENGSHISHISHIDE《NVZHIGONGLAODONGBAOHUGUIDING》DEJIBENJIAGOU,BINGCANKAOFENXILE1990NIANCHUTAIDE《NVZHIGONGJINJILAODONGFANWEIDEGUIDING》、《LAODONGFA》HE《FUNVQUANYIBAOZHANGFA(XIUZHENGAN)》DENGXIANGGUANGUIDINGDEJICHUSHANGXINGCHENGDE,BINGYIFULUDEFANGSHICHUXIANZAI2012NIAN《NVZHIGONGLAODONGBAOHUTEBIEGUIDING》ZHONG,YONG19GETIAOKUANDUIJINGXIAZUOYE、FUZHONGXINGLAODONGJIJINGQI、YUNQI、BURUQIDELAODONGJINJIFANWEIZUOCHULEJIAOWEIXIANGJINDEGUIZHI,QIANGHUALEYUNQIHEBURUQIDEBAOHU,TUOKUANLEYUNQIHEBURUQIJINJILAODONGFANWEI,YINVZHIGONGYUNQIZHONGLAODONGJINJIWEILI,JIUYOU10GEZHUANXIANGTIAOKUANDEJUTIGUIDING,SHEJIGAOCHU、DIWEN、LENGSHUI、ZAOSHENGDENGDUOFANGMIANDEZUOYEWEIHAI,SHIQIJINWEIZHIWOGUONVZHIGONGLAODONGJINJIZUIQUANMIANDEFAGUIXINGGUIDING。CONGNVZHIGONGLAODONGBAOHU、SHEHUIFAZHANYIJISHIXIANTIMIANLAODONGDENGFANGMIANWUYISHIJINBUDETIXIAN,DANCONGZHONGYEBUNANFAXIAN,ZHEIZHONGQUANFANGWEIDEZHIYEJINJIZAIQIANGHUALENVZHIGONGLAODONGBAOHUDETONGSHI,YESHEZHILENVXINGJIUYEDE“GAOMENJIAN”,ZAITONGDENGTIAOJIANXIA,YONGRENDANWEILUYONGYUANGONGSHIJIUHUIGENGYUANYIQINGXIANGYUXUANZENANXING,NVZHIGONGPINGDENGJIUYEQUANSHIXIANDEZHANGAIWUXINGZHONGJIUHUIJIADA。

  (二)女职工保健工作不够突出

赢发彩票代理   NVZHIGONGDELAODONGBAOJIANHELAODONGBAOHUGONGZUOBUSHIJIERANFENKAIDEGEZIXIANGDUIDELIANGXIANGGONGZUO,ERSHIBUKEFENGEDETONGYIZHENGTI。NVZHIGONGBAOJIANGONGZUOYAORENZHENZHIXINGGUOJIAYOUGUANBAOHUNVZHIGONGDEGEXIANGZHENGCEHEFAGUI,GUANCHEYUFANGWEIZHUDEFANGZHEN,YIJUNVXINGSHENGLIHEZHIYETEDIAN,DUINVZHIGONGJINXINGSHENXINJIANKANGJIQIZINVDEJIANKANGFAYUHECHENGZHANGFANGMIANDEBAOHU,ZHEISHIJICHUXINGDEBAOHUGONGZUO。ERLAODONGBAOHUZHUYAOSHIZHENDUINVZHIGONGZAILAODONGGUOCHENGZHONGSHEJISHENTIJIANKANGYUSHENGMINGANQUANTIGONGDEZONGHEXINGDEBAOHU,TUCHUNVXINGZAILAODONGGUOCHENGZHONGBUTONGSHENGLIQIDEBAOHU,ZHEIYUBAOJIANYAOQIUYIMAIXIANGCHENG。BUQIANGDIAOJICHUXINGDEBAOHU,ERBANVZHIGONGSUOYOUDESHENTIJIANKANGJISHENGMINGANQUANWENTIQUANBUGUIJIEWEILAODONGBAOHU,YOUSHIPIANPO。CONGCAOZUOCENGMIANLAIJIANG,XIANSHIZHONGDENVZHIGONGLAODONGBAOHUGONGZUODEHOUZHIXINGBIJIAOTUCHU,GONGZUOSHIZHONGCHUYUBEIDONG,WUCONGLUOSHIZHENZHENGYIYISHANGDENVZHIGONGLAODONGBAOHUGONGZUO。XIANXINGDE《NVZHIGONGJINJILAODONGFANWEIDEGUIDING》GUODUODIQIANGDIAONVZHIGONGZAILAODONGGUOCHENGZHONGSHENGLIQIDEBAOHUSHIYINGYOUZHIYI,DANHULVELENVZHIGONGZAILAODONGGUOCHENGZHONGDERICHANGJIANKANGFANGHU,ZHEIQISHIZHENGSHINVZHIGONGLAODONGBAOHUZHONGDEHEXINSUOZAI,JINGCHANGXINGDEWEIHUXIAOYIYUANYUANDAYUSHIHOUGANYUDESHEHUIXIAOYING,YUANZISIXIANGJUEWUDEGONGXIAOYAOYUANYUANDAYUSHIGUYINDAOXINGDEJINGSHIJIAOYU。

  (三)没有覆盖到已婚待孕女职工

赢发彩票代理   2012NIANCHUTAIDE《NVZHIGONGJINJICONGSHIDELAODONGFANWEI》XIANGDUIYU1988NIAN《NVZHIGONGLAODONGBAOHUGUIDING》HE1990NIAN《NVZHIGONGJINJILAODONGFANWEIDEGUIDING》DENGXIANGGUANGUIDINGLAIJIANG,DIAOZHENGLIDUJIAODA,BUJINQIANGDIAOLEYUNQIHEBURUQIDEBAOHU;HAIZAIYOUXIANDETIAOJIANXIAFANGKUANLEYUNQIHEBURUQIJINJICONGSHIDELAODONGFANWEI;SUOXIAOLEJINGQIJINJICONGSHIDELAODONGFANWEI。DANZHEIQIZHONGMEIYOUSHEJIYIHUNDAIYUNNVXINGLAODONGQUNTIJINJICONGSHIDELAODONGFANWEI。[5]1993NIAN11YUE26CHUTAIDE《NVZHIGONGBAOJIANGONGZUOGUIDING》(YIYU2011NIAN11YUE26RIXIUDING)DIJIUTIAODIYIKUANGUIDING:YIHUNDAIYUNNVZHIGONGJINJICONGSHIQIAN、GONG、BEN、GEDENGZUOYECHANGSUOSHUYU《YOUDUZUOYEFENJIBIAOZHUNZHONGDIⅢ-NJIDEZUOYE》。[6]BAOHUMUQINSHIGUOJISHEHUIDUIZHIYENVXINGTIGONGLAODONGBAOHUZUIJIBENDEDONGYIN,MUQINDEJIANKANGZHIJIEGUANXIDAOMUQINZISHENHEHAIZIDEJIANKANGJIRENKOUZHILIANGDETISHENG,SHIGONGZAIDANGDAI,LIZAIQIANQIUDEDASHI,SUOYISHUO,YUNQIANBAOHUDUIYUZHIYENVXINGLAIJIANGSHIZUIWEIGUANJIANXINGDEJICHUXINGDEBAOHU。YUNQIANSHENTIZHUANGKUANGYUCHUSHENGQUEXIANDEFASHENGGUANXIMIQIE,JIUJIANSHAOCHUSHENGQUEXIANERYAN,YUNQIANBAOHUJUYOUHENGAODEZHENDUIXINGHESHIXIAOXING。HENDUOYANJIUBIAOMING,YOUYUZHIYENVXINGZAIZHIYEHUANJINGZHONGCUNZAIDEYOUHAIZHIYEYINSUDUIZIDAIXIANTIANQUEXIAN、ZHILIFAYUYIJISHENTIJIANKANGDENGWANGWANGHUIZAOCHENGXUDUOBUKENIZHUANDESHENGZHANGQUEXIAN。RUZAOSHENGKEYINGXIANGTAIERFAYU;JIECHUQIAN、GONG、BENDENGWUZHIKEDAOZHIZIRANLIUCHANLVZENGGAO;ZHANGQIJIECHUFANGSHEXIANDENGKEDAOZHITAIERFAYUYICHANG,SHENZHIHUICHUXIANXIANTIANQUEXIANDENG。ZUIXINCHUTAIDE《NVZHIGONGJINJICONGSHIDELAODONGFANWEI》ZHONGWANQUANMEIYOUDUIYIHUNDAIYUNNVXINGLAODONGQUNTILAODONGJINJIFANWEIZUOCHUZHUANZHANGXINGDEFALVGUIDING,TAMENSHINVZHIGONGQUNTIZHONGBUKEFENGEDEZUCHENGBUFEN,YESHIZUIRONGYISHOUDAOZHIYEWEIHAIYINSUYINGXIANGDEQUNTI。

  三、进一步完善我国女职工劳动禁忌规定的相关建议

  (一)保护母性机能是女职工劳动禁忌范围规定的核心

  ZHANGQIYILAI,YOUYUDUINVXINGSHENGYUJIAZHISHEHUIXINGDERENSHIBUZU,YANZHONGYINGXIANGLENVXINGSHEHUIJIAOSEDESHIXIANHEWEILAIDESHEHUIFAZHAN,RENWEINVXINGDESHENGYUWANQUANSHIGERENDESISHIZAIWOMENDESHEHUIZHONGHAIDAYOURENZAI。JIUQIGENBENYUANYINJIUZAIYUNVXINGSHENGYUJIAZHIDESHEHUIXINGMEIYOUDEDAOQUANSHEHUIDEGONGSHIHERENKE。YUNANXINGXIANGBI,NVXINGZAIJIUYE、SHEHUIXUANZEYIJIZHIYEFAZHANDENGFANGMIAN,CUNZAIZHEXUDUOYOUYUSHENGYUJIAZHIERYINFADELIESHI。ZAIXIANSHIZHONG,NVZHIGONGYIFANGMIANDANFUZHERENLEIDEZISHENSHENGCHAN,LINGYIFANGMIANDANFUZHESHEHUISHENGCHAN,SHUANGZHONGDEZHONGRENSHINVZHIGONGLAODONGBAOHUGONGZUODEZHONGDIANGENGJIATUCHU,ZHENGRU《XIAOCHUDUIFUNVYIQIEXINGSHIQISHIGONGYUE》ZHONGZHICHU:“DIYUEGEGUOWEISHIFUNVBUZHIYINJIEHUNHUOSHENGYUERSHOUQISHI,YOUWEIBAOZHANGQIYOUXIAODEGONGZUOQUANLIQIJIAN,YINGCAIQUSHIDANGCUOSHI:(a)JINZHIYIHUAIYUNHUOCHANJIAWEILIYOUYUYIJIEGU,YIJIYIHUNYINZHUANGKUANGWEILIYOUYUYIJIEGUDEQISHI,WEIFANGUIDINGZHEDESHOUCHUFEN;(b)SHISHIDAIXINCHANJIAHUOJUYOUTONGDENGSHEHUIFULIDECHANJIA,BUSANGSHIYUANYOUGONGZUO、NIANZIHUOSHEHUIJINTIE;(c)GULITIGONGBIYAODEFUZHUXINGSHEHUIFUWU,TEBIESHITONGGUOCUJINJIANLIHEFAZHANTUOERSHESHIXITONG,SHIFUMUDEYIJIANGUJIATINGYIWUHEGONGZUOZERENBINGCANYUGONGGONGSHENGHUO;(d)DUIYUHUAIYUNQIJIANCONGSHIQUESHIYOUHAIYUJIANKANGDEGONGZUODEFUNV,JIYUTEBIEBAOHU。”[7]CONGZHONGKEYIKANCHU,MUXINGJINENGDEBAOHUSHISHIGUOJISHEHUIJIJICHANGDAODENEIRONG,YESHINVZHIGONGLAODONGBAOHUGONGZUODEZHONGXINSUOZAI。BAOHUMUQIN,BAOHUNVXINGJINGQI、RENSHEN、FENMIAN、BURUDENGTESHUSHENGLIQI,YINGCHONGFENKAOLVDAONVXINGDUIZUOYEHUANJINGYINSUBIJIAOMINGAN,YOUHAIZHIYEYINSUWANGWANGKETONGGUOMUTIDUITAIERJIRUERCHANSHENGBULIDEYINGXIANG,SHINVZHIGONGLAODONGBAOHUGONGZUODEHEXIN,YINGDANGJINYIBUXIHUAHEWANSHAN,ZHURUZENGJIAFANGZHIYUNQI、BURUQINVZHIGONGGUODUOJIESHOUDIANNAOFUSHEDETIAOKUANDENG。TUCHUNVZHIGONGDE“SIQIBAOHU”GONGZUO,YUNVZHIGONGGONGZUOYAOQIUXIANGYIZHI。

  (二)劳动禁忌规定法定适用范围应当是狭窄的

  WOMENSUOJIANGDEZHENDUINVZHIGONGDELAODONGJINJIYINGGAISHIJIANLIZAIKEXUEYIJUZHISHANGDE,JUYOUYANGEPINGGUFANWEIHEBIAOZHUNDE,JIXIANYOUDENVZHIGONGLAODONGJINJIFANWEIYINGGAISHIYOUMINGQUEJIEXIANDE。JINJIDUIXIANG、JINJINEIRONGHEJINJISHENGLIZHOUQISANGEZHONGYAOZHIBIAOSHIQUEDINGDE,ZHUZHIDENEIRONGJIUSHIZHIZHENDUINVZHIGONGQUNTIZAIJINGQI、YUNQI、BURUQIZAOCHENGZHIJIEHUOJIANJIEDEZHIYEWEIHAI,QIZHONGBAOKUODUITAIERHEXINSHENGERDEWEIHAI。LIRU:NVZHIGONGZAIYUNQIJINJICONGSHIDELAODONGFANWEI:(1)ZUOYECHANGSUOKONGQIZHONGQIANJIQIHUAHEWU、GONGJIQIHUAHEWU、BEN、GE、PI、SHEN、QINGHUAWU、DANYANGHUAWU、YIYANGHUATAN、ERLIUHUATAN、LV、JINEIXIANAN、LVDINGERXI、LVYIXI、HUANYANGYIWAN、BENAN、JIAQUANDENGYOUDUWUZHINONGDUCHAOGUOGUOJIAZHIYEWEISHENGBIAOZHUNDEZUOYE;(2)CONGSHIKANGAIYAOWU、JIXICIFENSHENGCHAN,JIECHUMAZUIJIQITIDENGDEZUOYE;(3)FEIMIFENGYUANFANGSHEXINGWUZHIDECAOZUO,HESHIGUYUFANGSHESHIGUDEYINGJICHUZHI。[8]CONGZHONGKEYIKANCHU,ZHEIYANGDEZHIYEWEIHAIDUINANZHIGONGTONGYANGYOUHAI,SHIYIZHONGKEGUANCUNZAIDEPUSHIXINGDEZHIYEWEIHAI,SHIGUANGYISHANGDELAODONGBAOHUGONGZUOFANCHOU,ERBUSHICHUNCUIDENVZHIGONGLAODONGJINJIFANWEI,TAHANGAISUOYOUDEZHIGONG。ZAIZHEIYANGDEQINGKUANGXIA,RENGCHANGDAO“DANBAOHU”DELINIAN,YIWEIDIQIANGDIAODUINVZHIGONGDEBAOHUSHIBUKEGUANDE,QUEFAYANJINDESHIZHENGJINGSHENHEKEXUEXING,MEIYOUZHUANSHUXINGHEZHENDUIXINGERYAN,ZIRANHUIYINGXIANGDAOFAGUIDECAOZUOXING。NVZHIGONGJINJICONGSHIDELAODONGFANWEIGUIDINGYINGGAISHIZHENDUINVZHIGONGDEZHUANZHANGXINGDEFALVGUIDING,QIHEXINYAOYIJIUSHITIGAOHEGAISHANNVZHIGONGZHENGTILAODONGHUANJINGDEANQUANXING,BAOHUNVZHIGONGDESHENTIJIANKANGHESHENGMINGANQUAN,JIANSHAOCHUSHENGQUEXIAN,LUOSHINVZHIGONGHEFAQUANYIHETESHUQUANYI,CUJINNVXINGDESHEHUIFAZHAN。CANZHAOGUOJIGUANLI,YIBANLAIJIANG,NVZHIGONGJINJICONGSHILAODONGFANWEIZHIYINGDANGDUIJIUYEZHONGDENVXINGZAOCHENGTEYOUDEZHUANSHUXINGDEWEIHAI,ERDUIJIUYEZHONGDENANXINGMEIYOUWEIHAI,QIZHUANXIANGFAGUIZHONGDESHIYONGFANWEIYINGDANGSHIXIAZHAIDE,YOUZHUANZHIXING,SHIJIYUNANNVSHENGLIJIEGOUBUTONGDEKEGUANSHISHIJINXINGDEBAOHUCUOSHI,BUSHIGUODUXINGDEBAOHU,BURENWEISHEZHINVXINGDEJIUYEZHANGAI,TIGAOJIUYEMENJIAN。YINCISHUO,NVZHIGONGLAODONGJINJIFANWEIDEGUIDINGYINGDANGSHIJIANLIZAIKEXUEYIJUJICHUZHISHANGDE,ZHIZHENDUIZHIYENVXINGZAOCHENGDEZHIYEWEIHAI,JUYOUMINGQUEFANGXIANGXINGDEZHIDUSHEJI,FANWEISHANGYIZHAIBUYIKUAN,GUIDINGSHANGYIXIBUYICU。

  (三)女职工劳动禁忌范围的规定应当加强科学研究水平

赢发彩票代理   2012NIANSHIXINGDE《NVZHIGONGJINJICONGSHILAODONGFANWEI》DEGUIDINGJUJINYIYOUQINIANSHIJIAN,MINGQUEGUIDINGLENVZHIGONGJINGQI、YUNQI、BURUQIDELAODONGJINJI。LIRU:NVZHIGONGJINJICONGSHIDELAODONGFANWEIDISANKUANGUIDING:MEIXIAOSHIFUZHONG6CIYISHANG、MEICIFUZHONGCHAOGUO20GONGJINDEZUOYE,HUOZHEJIANDUANFUZHONG、MEICIFUZHONGCHAOGUO25GONGJINDEZUOYE;NVZHIGONGZAIBURUQIJINJICONGSHIDELAODONGFANWEIDIERKUANGUIDING:ZUOYECHANGSUOKONGQIZHONGMENG、FU、XIU、JIACHUN、YOUJILINHUAHEWU、YOUJILVHUAHEWUDENGYOUDUWUZHINONGDUCHAOGUOGUOJIAZHIYEWEISHENGBIAOZHUNDEZUOYEDENG。[9]CONGZHONGKEYIKANCHU,ZHEIXIEJINJIXINGDELAODONGGUIDING,GENGDUODESHIQIANGDIAOLAODONGZHEZUOYEHUANJINGDEKONGQIZHIBIAO、LAODONGQIANGDU、YOUHAICHENGDUDENG,DANMEIYOUMINGQUEJUTIDEJINJILAODONGGANGWEI,YIJIZHEIXIEGANGWEIDEJIANCEBANFAHEXIANGGUANRENDINGJIGOU。SHANGHAISHIZONGGONGHUICENGZAI2012NIANDUI1000YUJIAQIYEKAIZHANNVZHIGONGJINJICONGSHILAODONGQINGKUANGDIAOYAN。DIAOYANJIEGUOXIANSHI,91%DEBEIDIAOCHAZHETEBIEGUANZHUDIANNAOFUSHEDEWENTI,PUBIANRENWEIXINCHUTAI《NVZHIGONGJINJICONGSHILAODONGFANWEI》YINGGAIZENGJIANVZHIGONGZAIYUNQIHEBURUQITESHUSHENGLIQIFANGZHIGUODUOJIESHOUDIANNAOFUSHEDETIAOKUAN。SHIZHISHANGJIANG,MUQIANGUOJIAQUANWEIBUMENDUIYUDIANNAOFUSHEDUINVZHIGONGYOUQISHIYUNQINVZHIGONGDEYINGXIANGHAIMEIYOUMINGQUEDESHUOFA,GUOJIAFAGUIZHONGYEMEIYOUMINGQUEGUIDING。[10]ZAISHIJIGONGZUOZHONG,JINJINYIJU《LAODONGFA》DENGXIANGGUANFALVGUIDING,CONGYUANZESHANGYEWUFAQUEDINGNAXIEXINGYE、NAXIEGONGZHONGYIJINAXIEGANGWEISHISHUYUNVZHIGONGJINJICONGSHIDELAODONGFANWEI。JIAZHIZAIXIANSHIDECAOZUOZHONG,JUTIDEYONGRENDANWEIYEWUFAQINGXIDIJIEDINGBUSHIHENVXINGTEBIESHICHUZAIJINGQI、YUNQIHEBURUQIDENVZHIGONGDEGONGZHONGJIGANGWEI,ZHEIJIUCHENGWEINVZHIGONGJINJILAODONGSHIXINGZHONGZUIDADEZHANGAI。DANGDAIDEZHONGGUO,KEXUEJISHUDEFAZHANRIXINYUEYI,JIGUANGJISHU、TAOCIJISHU、SICHOUJISHU、PAIGUANJISHU、SHENGWUZHIJIYIJIHECIGONGZHENDENGDENG,BUJINYINLINGLEZHONGGUOHEQUANQIUSHEHUIDEFAZHAN,ERQIEYEYANSHENLEWOMENDELAODONG,GAIBIANLEGONGZUOHUANJINGHEKONGJIAN,ZHEIXIEXINJISHU、XINCAILIAO、XINCHANPINDECHUXIAN,DUINVZHIGONGLAODONGBAOHUGONGZUOSHIFOUCUNZAIZHEXINDEWEIHAI?DEQUEZHIDEWOMENZUOJINYIBUDEYANJIUHESIKAO。

  ZONGZHI,ZAIXINSHIDAIJUTIDESHIJIANGUOCHENGZHONG,CHUXIANDEWENTIBURONGHUSHI,XUYAOWOMENJINYIBUJIYUGUANZHUHEGAIJIN。YINGDUIZHEIXIEXINQINGKUANGBIXUYAOJIAQIANGYANJIU,YAOZAIGUANGFANDIAOYAN,ZHANGWOSHIZHENGCAILIAODEJICHUSHANGJINXINGYANMIDIKEXUEFENXI、KEXUECESUANHEKEXUEYANJIU,ZHELICUJINNVZHIGONGLAODONGJINJIBIAOZHUNGENGJIAKEXUE、HELIHEGUIFAN,SHIYICAOZUO、JIANCHAJIJIANDU,JIJITUIDONGGUOJIA、ZHENGFUHESHEHUIDUINVZHIGONGJINJILAODONGDEQUANFANGWEIDEGUANZHUHERENSHI,SHINVZHIGONGJINJILAODONGFANWEIDESHISHIDIAOZHENGZHENZHENGGENYUANYUJINGJISHEHUIFAZHANDESHIJIZHUANGKUANG,QIESHIRANGNVZHIGONGLAODONGJINJIBAOHUXINGCUOSHILUOSHIDAOWEI,ZUIDAXIANDUDIWEIHUHAONVZHIGONGDEHEFAQUANYIHETESHUQUANYI。

  参考文献

  [1] 中华全国总工会女职工部.女职工劳动保护资料汇编[Z].北京:中国工人出版社,1993:88,103,104.
  [2] 国务院.女职工劳动保护规定[M].北京:中国工人出版社,1989.
  [3] 中华全国总工会女职工部.女职工劳动保护特别规定百题问答[M].北京:中国工人出版社,2012.
  [4] 陈菲,王敏.扩大女职工孕期哺乳期禁忌从事的劳动范围[N].北京日报,2012-05-08.
  [5] 中华全国总工会女工部.女职工权益维护法律知识微手册[M].北京:中国工人出版社,2017.
  [6] 中国人大网.消除对妇女一切形式歧视公约[EB/OL].http://www.npc.gov.cn/wxzl/wxzl/2000-12/26/content_1211.htm.
  [7] 中华全国总工会.工会女职工工作概论[M].北京:中国工人出版社,2013.
  [8] 青海省总工会法律与保障部.工会实用法律法规政策汇编[Z].青海:青海省总工会法律与保障部,2014.
  [9] 张锐,郑莉.尽快修订女职工禁忌劳动范围[N].工人日报,2013-03-08.

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