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我国深基坑支护常用技术与工艺分析
发布时间:2019-12-12

  摘    要: 建筑工程中的深基坑支护技术十分重要,其关系着主体工程的稳定性,关系着施工过程中的安全性,关系着工程成本控制的高低。我国城市化建设对高层建筑的需求量越来越大,也带动了深基坑技术的跨越式发展。将结合目前深基坑最常用的技术工艺方法,探讨在施工中需要注意的要素,为行业规范合理化发展提供指导性意见。

  关键词:赢发彩票代理 土建基础; 施工技术; 深基坑; 工艺;

  0、 引言

  SUIZHEWOGUOCHENGSHIHUAJINCHENGDEJIAKUAI,JINNIANLAIGAOCENGJIANZHUZAICHENGSHIJIANSHEZHONGDESHULIANGYUELAIYUEDA,YESHIDEWOGUOTUMUJIANZHUGONGCHENGXINGYEYINGLAILEYIGEFEICHANGHAODEFAZHANJIEDUAN。ZUOWEITUJIANJICHUSHIGONGZHONGZUIJIBENDEJISHUFANGFA,SHENJIKENGDEZHIHUZAIZHUTIXIANGMUGONGCHENGSHIGONGZHONGBAOZHANGXIANGMUANQUANXING、NAIJIUXINGHEWENDINGXINGJUYOUZHONGYAODEZUOYONG。RUGUOSHENJIKENGZHIHUSHIGONGCUNZAIZHILIANGWENTI,JIANGDAOZHIGONGCHENGRONGYICHUXIANYIWEIHEHUAPODENGANQUANSHIGU,HUIZAOCHENGJUDADESHENGMINGCAICHANSUNSHI。YINCI,YAOJIEHEGUOJIAGUIFAN,XISHOUXIANJINDEJISHUHEGUANLILINIAN,SHIXIANWOGUOSHENJIKENGZHIHUJISHUGONGYICONGCUFANGXINGDERENWEIKONGZHIDAOANQUANGUIFAN、HELIYOUXUDEJIXIEHUA、ZHINENGHUACAOZUO,CAINENGSHIXIANTUJIANGONGCHENGXIANGMUDITANJIENENG,ANQUANSHUNLIDIJINXING。

  1、 深基坑支护技术概念

  深基坑支护是指为了保证地下建筑结构的稳定性,以及基坑周边环境的安全性,对深基坑侧壁及所属施工影响范围内的环境(比如建筑物、建筑废料、建筑设备、建筑辅助工具)进行支档、加固与保护的措施[1]。
 

我国深基坑支护常用技术与工艺分析
 

  2、 我国深基坑支护常用技术与工艺分析

  2.1、 复合土钉墙支护技术

  GAIJISHUZHUYAOYOUTUDINGQIANGJICHUSHANGFAZHANERLAIDEDANXIANGQINGXINGZHIHUJISHUHUOJIESHUIJISHU,QIZHUYAOGOUCHENGYAOSUWEITUDING、JIESHUIWEIMU、SHUGENZHUANG、GUAWANGPENSHEHUNNINGTUMIANCENG、YUANWEITUTIDENG。SHIGONGGONGYISHUNXUWEI:CELIANGDINGWEI-SHIZUOJIESHUIWEIMUHUOWEIXINGZHUANG-FENCENGKAIWA-PENSHEHUNNINGTUMIAN-ANZHUANGTUDINGJIYUYINGLIMAOGANBINGZHUSHEJIANGTI-GUAWANGPENSHEDIERCENGHUNNINGTUMIAN-DENGDAI24 hZHIHOUJIXUFENCENGKAIWA-BUZHIYUYINGLIMAOGAN,BINGCUSHIJIANGTIQIANGDUDADAOSHEJIYAOQIU,QUEDINGQIJIANGMAOGANSUODINGZHIHOUJIXUFENCENGKAIWA(JIANTU1)。

  图1 复合土钉墙组合类型
图1 复合土钉墙组合类型

  ZAISHIGONGGUOCHENGZHONGYAOZHUYITUFANGKAIWAYUTUDINGPENSHEHUNNINGTUGONGYIDEJINMIPEIHESHIQUEBAOTUDINGQIANGSHIGONGSHUNLIDEGUANJIAN。YAOGENJUDIXIASHUIWEILAIHELIXUANZETUDING,DIXIASHUIWEIYISHANG,WENDINGXINGQIANGDEDICENGKEYIXUANZEGANGJINTUDINGHUOGANGGUANTUDING;DIXIASHUIWEIYIXIA,RUANRUOTUCENG、SHAZHITUCENGBIXUCAIYONGGANGGUANTUDINGLAIDADAOWENDINGZHIMUDE。

  2.2、 组合内支撑技术

  GAIJISHUZHUYAOSHIYONGYUJIANZHUWUMIJI、SHIGONGCHANGDIMIANJIXIAXIAO、FUZADIZHITUCENGDENGSHIGONGHUANJINGZHONG,JUYOUSHIGONGFANGBIANKUAIJIE,CHENGBENTOURUXIAOCHANCHUDADEYOUSHI。QIZHUYAOSHIGONGSHUNXUWEI:GANGZHICHENGJIEGOUTIDEDIAOZHUANG、JIUWEI、HANJIEGONGZUO-GANGZHICHENGSHIJIAYUYINGLI-ANZHUANGXIECHENG、ZONGXIANGXIGAN-ANZHUANGLINSHIGANGLIZHU。

  GAIJISHUDESHIGONGGUOCHENGZHONGYAOZHUYITUFANGKAIWAYINGZISHANGERXIAFENCENGCIYOUSHUNXUJINXING,MEICENGYOUZHONGJIANXIANGLIANGBIANJINXINGKAIWAJIANSHE。ZHIHUTIXISHIGONGZHONGYAOZHUYIYANJINZAIGANGZHICHENGSHANGMIANFANGZHIZHONGWU,YANJINSHIGONGRENYUANZAIGANGZHICHENGSHANGXINGZOU。GANGZHICHENGZHIHUTIXICHAICHUZHONGYAOANZHAOZIXIAERSHANGDESHUNXUJINXING,JUTICAOZUOWEIXIANXINGCHAICHUXIECHENG、ZONGXIANGXIGAN、ZHUGUDENGSHUIPINGGOUJIAN,ZAIYONGQIANJINDINGXIEZAIZHUCHENG,CHECHUGANGXIEKUAI,BINGYONGTADIAOJIANGGANGZHICHENGDIAOCHUJIKENG。

  2.3 、型钢水泥土复合搅拌桩支护技术

赢发彩票代理   GAIJISHUYOUJIAOSMWGONGFA,YECHENGWEIJIAJINSHUINIDIXIALIANXUQIANGGONGFA。SHIZAIYIPAIXIANGHULIANXUDAJIEDESHUINITUZHUANGZHONGJIAQIANGXINCAI(XINGGANG)DEYIZHONGDIXIALIANXUQIANGSHIGONGJISHU。

赢发彩票代理   GAIJISHUSHIYONGZHUANMENDINGZHIDEJIAOBANJIXIESHEBEI,YISHUINIJIANGZUOWEIGUHUAJI,ZAIJIAOBANJIXIEDEQIANGLIZUOYONGXIA,RANGSHUINIJIANGGUHUAJIYUTUCENGZHONGDERUANTUQIANGXINGJIAOHEYIQIXINGCHENGJIANGUZHIMIDESHUINITUDIXIALIANXUQIANG,ANZHAOGUDINGDEJIANXIZAIQIANGTIZHONGCHARUYUSHOULIXINGGANG,CONGERXINGCHENGYIZHONGJIANGUDEWEIHUJIEGOU(JIANTU2)[2]。

  图2 型钢水泥土复合搅拌桩支护技术施工流程
图2 型钢水泥土复合搅拌桩支护技术施工流程

赢发彩票代理   ZAIGAIJISHUSHIGONGZHONGYAOZHUYI,CHARUQIANGTIDEXINGGANGSHIKEYIHUISHOUZHONGFULIYONGDE,YINWEIZHEIGEZHIGUANGUANXIDAOSHIGONGCHENGBENZHICHUDE1/2ZUOYOU。DANSHIZAIBACHUXINGGANGDESHIHOUYAOZHUYIBUYAOSHIQIBIANDEWANQU,BURANJIUSHIQULEZHONGFULIYONGDEJIAZHI,HAIYAOZHUYIBACHUDEGUOCHENGZHONGYAOFANGZHICHUXIANYONGLIGUOMENGDAOZHIYADINGLIANGDUANLIE、YASUISHENZHISHUINITUQIANGDINGSUILIEDENGCISHENGWENTI。

  2.4、 冻结排桩法基坑支护技术

赢发彩票代理   GAIJISHUSHILIYONGDONGJIESHIGONGJISHUYUPAIZHUANGZHIHUJISHUXIANGJIEHEDETESHUSHIGONGFANGFA。GAIJISHUSHIYIHANSHUIDICENGDONGJIEXINGCHENGDONGTUQIANGLAIXINGCHENGGEDUANHANSHUIDICENGHEDIXIASHUIDEFENGSHUIJIEGOU,YIJINEIPAIZHUANGZHICHENGXITONGLAIXINGCHENGKANGSHUITUYANLIDESHOULIJIEGOU,CONGERYIGEJUYOUZHANG、KUAN、SHENDESANWEIKONGJIANJIEGOU,YIMANZUDAJIKENGWEIHUDEYAOQIU[3]。

  RENGONGBINGJIEFAYINJUYOUSHIYINGXINGQIANG,LVSEHUANBAO,BAOHUDIXIASHUIZIYUANDENGYOUSHI,YUELAIYUEDUODIBEIYINGYONGZAISHENJIKENGZHIHUGONGCHENGZHONG,JIKENGYUESHEN、KAIWATIJIYUEDA,DONGJIEFASHIGONGYUEJUYOUYUEXING。SHIGONGSHUNXUWEI:YONGZUANKONGGUANZHUYANZHEJIKENGSIZHOUDACHUYIPAIGUANZHUZHUANG-YONGXIANJIAOGANGJINHUNNINGTULIANGBAPAIZHUANGDINGDUANGUDINGXINGCHENGZHICHENGJIEGOUTIXI-ZAIPAIZHUANGWAICESHEJIYIPAIDONGJIEKONG-ZAIDONGJIEKONGWAICEZHONGXINWEIZHIBUSHEDUOGEXIEYAKONG-LIYONGRENGONGDONGJIEJISHUXINGCHENGDONGTUQIANG,YUPAIZHUANGZHICHENGJIEGOUTIXIYIQIXINGCHENGLINSHIZHIHUJIEGOU-JINXINGJIKENGKAIWAGONGZUO。

  CHULESHANGSHUSIZHONGCHANGJIANDEJIKENGZHIHUJISHU,HAIYOUWSPJISHU、CRMJISHU、TRUSTJISHU、ZHIDIXIALIANXUQIANGJISHU、PAIZHUANGZHIHUNIZUOFAJISHU、JINLINJIANZHUWU“LINGZHANWEI”JIKENGZHIHUJISHU,YOUYUWENZHANGPIANFUSUOXIAN,BUYIYIXIANGXIXUSHU。JIANSHEDANWEIYAOJIEHESHIGONGXIANCHANGDEDIZHI、SHUIWENTIAOJIAN,JIHEZISHENGONGCHENGJIXIESHEBEIHEJISHUNENGLI,YIJIGONGCHENGGUIMODAXIAO,GONGCHENGCHENGBENYUSUANZHICHUDENGGEFANGMIANDEYINSU,XUANQUZUIFUHETIANSHIDILIRENHEDESHENJIKENGZHIHUJISHU。

  3、 深基坑支护技术工艺施工设计应用需要注意的要素

  3.1、 做到安全性、技术性与成本控制的平衡

  SHENJIKENGZHIHUJISHUSHIYIXIANGFUZADEGONGCHENGXITONG,XIANCHANGRENYUANDEDIAOPEI、SHEBEIDEYUNXING、WUZIDEFENPEIDOUXUYAOYOUYITAOKEXINGXINGFANGANLAIJINXINGYOUJIHUADEZHIDAO,CHUCIZHIWAIGONGCHENGYEMIANLINZHESHIGONGXIANCHANGDIZHIHUANJING、ZHOUWEIKEGUANHUANJINGBUKEKONG、TUFAXINGYINSUDEYINGXIANG,HUIJIXIANGMUJINZHANDAILAIYIDINGDECHONGJI,ZHEIJIUXUYAOJUBEIZHUANYESUZHIQIANG,GUANLIJINGYANFENGFUDELINGDAOCENG,JIANGZHENGGEXIANGMUKONGZHIZAIDICHENGBEN、GAOANQUANXISHUHEYONGJISHUTIGAOSHIGONGXIAOLVDEKEKONGZHUANGTAIXIA,FANGNENGQUEBAOXIANGMUDESHEHUIXIAOYIYUJINGJIXIAOYIDETONGYI。

  3.2、 施工中要遵循相应原则

赢发彩票代理   SHENJIKENGZHIHUJISHUDEZHUYAOMUDEJIUSHIWEILEBAOZHANGZAITUFANGKAIWAGUOCHENGZHONGBAOZHENGSHIGONGDEANQUAN,GONGCHENGJIEGOUDEWENDING。JIKENGZAIWAJUEGUOCHENGZHONGYOUYUHUIDUIYUANZHUANGTUJINXINGPOHUAI,CONGXINYONGRENGONGWUZICAILIAOGOUJIANXINDELIDEPINGHENGZHUANGTAI,ZAIZHEIGEGUOCHENGZHONGJIUBANSUIZHEANQUANSHIGUFENGXIAN。YINCI,JIKENGKAIWAQIANDEFANGANSHEDINGYIDINGYAOZUNXUNTUFANGKAIWAFENCENGJINXING,XIANCHENGHOUWA,KAICAOZHICHENG,JINZHICHAOWADEYUANZE(JIANTU3)。ZAIKAIWAQIANDEJIKENGZHIHUJISHUDEXUANZEGUANXIZHESHIGONGDEANQUANXINGHEKEKAOXING,DUIZUGOUZHICHENGDAOXIANGMUWANCHENGJUYOUGUANJIANXINGDEZUOYONG。SUOYI,SHENJIKENGZHIHUJISHUYAOJIEHESHIGONGXIANCHANGDESHIJIJIANZHUXUYAO,TEBIESHIYAOZHUZHONGKAIWASHENDUDEWENTI,ANZHAOGUOJIAGUIFANBIAOZHUN,LAISHEZHIDUIYINGDEDANGTU、DANGSHUI、ZHICHENGXITONG,CONGERRANGXIANCHANGDEHUANJINGHETIAOJIANZAIHELIDEJIHUAHEYOUXIAODEGUANLIXIAANZHAOJIDINGDEMUBIAOZHIXING。

  3.3、 对施工环境进行严格的监测

  SHENJIKENGDESHIGONGGUOCHENGWUSHIWUKEBUZAIDUIZHOUBIANDEHUANJINGCHANSHENGYINGXIANG,YOUQISHIQIHOU、DIZHIDENGKEGUANYINSU,SHAOYOUBIANHUA,BIANHUIDUIGONGCHENGSHEJISHIGONGDAILAIWEIZHIDEFENGXIAN。YINCI,YAOZAIGONGCHENGSHISHIGUOCHENGZHONG,ZAIJIKENGZHOUWEIJIANZHUWUSHANGSHEZHIDUOGEGUANCEDIAN,ZAIGONGCHENGKAIGONGQIAN、SHIGONGZHONG,JUNGONGHOU,DOUYAOJIANCHIDINGSHIGUANCE,YIFANGGUANCEZHICHUXIANYICHANG,YIDANCHUXIANJIUYAOJINXINGJINJIYINGDUIHEJIEJUE。ZHEIYANG,CAINENGQUEBAOJIKENGGONGCHENGDEZHILIANGDEWENDINGXING,YIJIDUIZHOUBIANHUANJINGJUTIDEYINGXIANG,YIZUOHAOXIANGYINGDEBUJIUCUOSHI。

  图3 土方分层开发示意图
图3 土方分层开发示意图

  4、 结语

  DANGQIANKEYONGZUOSHENJIKENGZHIHUJISHUGONGYIDEFANGFAXUANZEJUYOUDUOYANGHUA,ZAISHIJIGONGZUOZHONG,YAOLILUNLIANXISHIJILAIJINXINGHELIDEYUNYONG。JIANSHEDANWEIYEYAOJIAQIANGRENCAIDUIWUDEJIANSHE,GUANLISHUIPINGDETISHENGHESHIGONGJISHUSHEBEIDEDIEDAISHENGJI,FANGNENGZAIYINGJIANHERUANJIANLIANGFANGMIANDOUNENGGOUYINGDUISHENJIKENGZHIHUJISHUDAILAIDEGEZHONGSHIGONGTIAOZHAN,CONGSHENGCHANXIAOLV,ANQUANFENGXIANGUANKONGLAISHIXIANWOGUOSHEHUISHENGCHANSHUIPINGDETISHENG。

  参考文献

  [1] 程刚.土建基础施工中深基坑支护施工技术的应用[J].河北企业,2017(2):152-153.
  [2] 杨一伟.土建基础施工中深基坑支护施工技术[J].建材与装饰,2018,538(29):21-22.
赢发彩票代理   [3] 闫书杰.建筑工程施工中深基坑支护技术分析[J].建材与装饰,2018,536(27):43.

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